Figure 1016 TBF Establishment Initiated by the MS One Phase Access

After successful reception of the PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST, the BSS replies on the PAGCH channel with PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT. The PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT contains the following information TFI Unique value that identifies the requested TBF. One or more PDCHs assigned to the TBF A radio frequency channel and one or more time slots. USFs 3-Bit field associated with each assigned PDCH. For example, if a TBF connection is assigned frequency cj and time slot numbers 2 and 5, there are two USFs...

Table 103 Delay Classes

The throughput parameters include the maximum and mean bit rates. These terms can be negotiated between the user and the network before and during the communication session. 10.7.1.5 PDP Context Procedures Each application's QoS requirements are mapped to a QoS profile. The mapping process is not defined in the standard. The QoS profile is included in the Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context. QoS profiles negotiation is managed by PDP context procedures (i.e., activation, modification, and...

Data Link Layer Classification

Data link layer, or Layer 2, classifies the traffic based on the tag or field available in Layer 2 header. An example of Layer 2 classification is IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802 user priority. The IEEE 802 header includes a 3-bit priority field that enables eight priority classes. It aims to support service differentiation on a Layer 2 network such as a LAN. The end host or intermediate host associates application traffic with a class (based on the Policy, or the...

LM QoS signaling

Bluetooth also defines QoS signaling in the LM layer. For example, LMP_quality_of_service and LMP_quality_of_service_req contain the polling interval for the ACL link. These two messages are used for the request and response of the polling interval of the ACL link. The IEEE 802.15 group focuses on standards that will cover Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). So far IEEE 802.15 has introduced one standard, referred to as IEEE 802.15.1, which standardized parts of Bluetooth. In addition, the...

DVB Return Channel System DVBRCS

The DVB family of standards contains GEO satellite communication with various options of uplink (or return) and downlink (or forward) channels. Up to a few years ago, satellites were only able to transfer data unidirectionally from the content sources to the end user equipment, mostly TV sets. However, in recent years bidirectional communication has been introduced with various return channels such as telephones, ISDN, Cable TV, DECT, and LMDS. Here is a list of DVB standards ETS 300 802,...

Figure 104 BSSs Radio Interface Protocol Stack

Packet Data Convergence Protocol

A logical channel that represents a traffic stream of a specific type of information (i.e., data message, control message) contains a specific structure of the information block (or packet) which is mapped to the physical layer. The logical channel will be described in a later section. The radio interface protocol is divided into three layers Layer 1 or physical layer (PHY) Layer 2, which includes the Data Link, Media Access Control (MAC), Radio Link Control (RLC) and Packet Data Convergence...

Channel Definition and Channel Access

Time Slotes Meaning

A piconet consists of a master node, active slave nodes (up to seven nodes), and several inactive slave nodes (up to 200 nodes). All connections (or links) in the piconet take place only between the master and slaves in point-to-point or point-to-multipoint fashion. There is no direct connection between slaves. The communication channel is structured into time slots, each with duration of 625 ps. The master uniquely defines the frequency hopping sequence based on its device address (48 bits)....

Transport Layer Classification 5tuplet IP Header

A 5-tuplet IP header (source IP, destination IP, source port, destination port, and protocol IP) can be used for transport layer classification. A 5-tuplet IP header can uniquely identify the individual application or flow. This classification provides the finest granularity and supports per-flow QoS service. However, the 5-tuplet IP header classification has some limitations It is suitable for edge networks, but it is not suitable for core networks that carry very large amounts of traffic....

25G and 3G Networks Gprs Umts cdma2000

Association of Radio Industries and Businesses Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy Compact Packet Broadcast Control Channel Compact Packet Random Access Channel China Wireless Telecommunication Standard Group DBPSCH Dedicated Basic Physical Subchannel EDGE Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute F-APICH Forward Dedicated Auxiliary Pilot Channel F-ATDPICH Forward Auxiliary Transmit Diversity Pilot Channel F-BCCH...

Figure 1126 Logical Channels

Traffic C hann els Conical C hannels DITCH - L gt 5dicated r raff s Chjii I CTCH CorrtnVH'i rratfi Chinnd BCCH - BiDfidw amp 1 Control C nnol PCCH Psgnsi Ccnflml Channel BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH SHCCH Down Down Up Down Up Down Up Down DCCH - Locate Jontral Charnel CCCH CirufTi n C rrtrtt Ch nntl shcch - sh rrd Ch inin.H COnlrq Cruriryl The Control Channels CCHs include the following Broadcast Control Channel BCCH is a downlink channel for broadcasting system control information. Paging Control...

Figure 1110 OVSF Code Tree

The OVSF code tree contains the hierarchical structure of codes where each level is referred to the spread factor SF . For example, SF 4 contains four OVSF codes with the length of four chips each. Codes within the same spread factor are orthogonal to each other. The code assignment for the uplink is managed by each mobile station, and by the RNC on the downlink. There are some restrictions for the code assignment. A code can be assigned to a physical channel if there is no other physical...

Physical Layer

The IEEE 802.16 defines the physical layer for the 10 to 66 GHz frequency bands assuming line of sight between the BS and SS. It uses burst single-carrier modulation in which all data are sequentially transmitted in a single frequency. The standard allows the use of directional antennas to increase capacity and reduce interference from adjacent transmissions. The physical layer supports wide channel bandwidth of 20 or 25 MHz in the U.S. and 28 MHz in Europe. With 20 MHz channel width vendors...

Network Topology

Before we describe the HomeRF network topology, we would like to introduce the HomeRF devices and their functionalities. The HomeRF standard categorizes the HomeRF devices into three main types, based on the type of application the devices support 1. Asynchronous data device also called A-node These devices, such as PC, Laptop, and PDA, support asynchronous data services i.e., file transfer, email . 2. Streaming data device also called S-node These devices, such as audio headsets, support...

Wireless Local Area Networks

IEEE 802.11 WG, ANSI IEEE Std 802.11, Information technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks Specific Requirements Part 11 Wireless LAN Medium Access Control MAC and Physical Layer PHY Specifications, 1999. IEEE 802.11 WG, IEEE Std 802.11a-1999, Supplement to IEEE Standard for Information Technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks Specific requirements Part 11...

Transport and Physical Channels

One of the functions of the physical layer is to perform the mapping process between the transport and physical channels. As shown in Figure 11.12, the MAC packets on a transport channel are called transport blocks. A number of transport blocks transmitted on the same transport channel are called a Transport Block Set. A Transport Block Set size is defined as the number of bits in a Transport Block Set. As shown in Figure 11.13, the interarrival time between consecutive Transport Block Sets is...

Media Access Control MAC

Figure 12.9 illustrates the MAC layer and its interactions with the LAC. cdma2000 supports a generalized model of multimedia services that allows simultaneous support for both voice and data traffic. cdma2000 also includes Quality of Service QoS control mechanisms that reside at the MAC layer. These mechanisms balance different QoS requirements of multiple simultaneous multimedia applications. The key functions of the MAC layer are 1 to receive the packets i.e., voice, data from the upper...

Protocol Stack

As shown in Figure 9.4, the draft standard divided the protocol stack into various layers frame convergence sublayer FCSL , MAC sublayer, PHY sublayer and layer-dependent management entity MLME, PLME . The frame convergence sublayer provides frame multiplexing from different protocols i.e., 802.2, 1394, USB, etc. . The MAC sublayer defines the following functionalities association disassociation, channel access, channel time management, channel synchronization, fragmentation defragmentation,...

QoS Profile in GPRS Bearer Service

In order to provide QoS to an application, the network resources on each component of the mobile system i.e., mobile station, Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN , Gateway GPRS Support Node GGSN need to be reserved. Resource reservation is carried out by the signaling mechanism that uses QoS profiles. A QoS profile is the set of QoS parameters that describes the application's characteristics and QoS requirements. A QoS profile consists of four parameters service precedence priority parameter,...

Table 112 Transport Format Combination Set Semi Static Part

Transport Time Type of Error Static Rate Interval ms Protection Code Matching Parameter Transport Channel 1 10 Convolution code 1 Transport Channel 2 20 Turbo code 1 Transport Channel 3 30 Turbo code 2 Figure 11.14 shows the physical layer mapping process. In a certain period of time, transport blocks arrive from the MAC along with Transport Format Indicator TFI which indicates the transport format of the transport blocks. The transport blocks from different transport channels are multiplexed,...

Isochronous Data Service

This service is designed for applications i.e., PSTN call, Intercom call, PC call, Conferencing that originate at an I-node which require strict QoS control in terms of bandwidth, delay, and delay jitter. To achieve this service, the following service characteristics and QoS mechanisms are involved 1. Connection-oriented service An I-node sends the connection request to the CP. The CP assigns the connection ID and allocates the slot position in the contention-free period. This information is...

RRC Procedures

The standard defines several RRC functions and procedures. In this subsection, we introduce only the connection establishment and the radio bearer establishment procedures. 11.6.2.1 RRC Connection Establishment Procedure The RRC connection establishment procedure see Figure 11.34 is initiated when the upper layers in the mobile station need to establish a signaling connection and the mobile station is in idle mode. First, the mobile station's RRC sends an RRC Connection Request message to...

Collision Free Channel Access

In a collision-free channel access mechanism the channel is arbitrated such that no collisions can occur. Only one host is allowed to transmit packets to the channel at any given time. Collision, therefore, will not occur. Examples of collision-free channel access techniques are polling and TDMA Time Division Multiple Access . A host in the network, or a specialized network device such as an Access Point or Base Station, is designated as the poller, which controls all access to the wireless...

Figure 814 Piconet Establishment Sequences

First, the master executes the inquiry process to obtain the device addresses and clocks of the slaves within the transmission coverage. Then, the master performs the paging process to establish the connections with the specific slave. Finally, both the master and the active slaves can communicate with each other. 8.4.2.3 Scatternet Establishment and Operation To increase the coverage area and the number of supported stations, several piconets may coexist in the same area. Each piconet's master...

Adaptive Data Burst Profiles

The standard supports adaptive data burst profiling in which transmission parameters, such as modulation and Forward Error Correction FEC coding settings, can be modified individually to each SS on a frame-by-frame basis in both uplink and downlink transmissions. The standard allows three types of modulation schemes Quadrature Phase Shift Keying QPSK , 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QAM , and 64 QAM. Different combinations of modulation and FEC provide different transmission robustness and...

IEEE 802154 Physical Layer

The radio can operate at the following frequencies the 868 MHz band e.g., in Europe , the 915 MHz band e.g., in the U.S. , and the 2.4 GHz band worldwide Figure 9.18 . At 868 MHz and 915 MHz, the transmission speed is 20 kbps using DSSS. 868 MHz band allows one channel while in the 915 MHz band there are 10 non-overlapping channels that is, up to 10 networks can coexist in the same area. The 2.4 GHz band supports 250 kbps using DSSS, allowing 16 non-overlapping channels that is, up to 16...

Figure 137 Program Specific Information PSI Table Structure

Program A amp weials Tafcte fmfJ FlD 0 Program Map Table tor program l PlD lS Program A amp weials Tafcte fmfJ FlD 0 Program Map Table tor program l PlD lS Pragram Map Tab s for piogran 2 PID MgHi program MPEG- Tran pflrl SI' SIK There are other types of tables such as the Superframe Composition Table SCT , Frame Composition Table FCT , and Time Slot Composition Table TCT used to define the channel structure. We will describe them later in this chapter.

Figure 1114 Mapping Process at the Physical Layer

Pfi yi lt M 1 Qm b lt A C to lit DCCWIki . Dennrti dcsing nnd Physical ctinnmH joining Channelization and scrambling decoding The transport channels see Figure 11.15 that transmit the data through the radio interface can be categorized as either dedicated transport channels or common transport channels. Dedicated transport channels are identified by the physical channel that is, 1 code and frequency in FDD mode, or 2 code and time slot in TDD mode. Common transport channels are identified if...

Contention Access Period CAP

In the CAP, contention is allowed via the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance CSMA CA mechanism. The DEVs can send small amounts of pending data without requesting reserved time slots. Because of the unpredictable channel access delay of the contention scheme, CAP is suitable for asynchronous data traffic such as file transfer, MP3 download files, etc. Moreover, CAP can be used for command exchange between the PNC and the DEVs. CAP starts after the end of beacon and...

Figure 19 The WAP Programming Model

Wap Programming Model

The External Functionality Interface EFI service specifies the interface between the Wireless Application Environment WAE and plug-in modules, which extends or enhances the capabilities of browsers or other applications. The EFI framework provides for future growth and extendibility of supported WAP devices and can be used to access external devices e.g., smart cards, GPS devices, digital cameras . A WAP proxy or WAP gateway was required in the original WAP standard see Figure 1.10 . Such proxy...

Figure 412 IEEE 80211e Classification Mechanisms

Up to ight iraf'ic categories to support Up to eighl traffic slreams o support differentia tedse rvices Priorilized Qo 5 qua ntitatiue services Pararinetenze d QoS 4.2.2 Channel Access and Packet Scheduling 802.11e provides enhanced MAC functions EDCF, HCF which include both channel access and packet scheduling mechanisms. Therefore, we discuss both QoS mechanisms at once for each MAC. IEEE 802.11e defines the following MAC protocol with two modes of operation the Hybrid Coordination Function...

Figure 915 Star and Peerto Peer Topologies

In a star topology data may be exchanged only between the network coordinator and the DEVs or network nodes no direct communication between DEVs . There are two types of communication uplink, from the DEVs to the network coordinator and downlink, from the network coordinator to the DEVs. In a peer-to-peer topology, each DEV can communicate with others within its radio range. There is no network coordinator. However, a DEV can become such a coordinator if it is the first device to communicate on...

Figure 1134 RRC Connection Establishment Procedure

Rrc Connection Establishment Network

Figure 11.35 illustrates the radio bearer establishment procedure. The radio bearer establishment procedure is initiated when the upper layers in the mobile station need to set up the transport and physical channels to accommodate the traffic flow from the upper layers. This procedure starts after the UTRAN performs the admission control and selects the parameters for the transport i.e., transport format set and physical i.e., channelization coding channels. 11.6.2.2 Radio Bearer Establishment...

Figure 813 Paging Sequences

In Standby, no connection has been established and the station can use all of its capacity to support Page Scan. If desired, the station can place ACL connections in the Hold mode or even use the Park mode before entering Page Scan. SCO connections are preferably not interrupted by Page Scan. In this case, Page Scan may be interrupted by the reserved SCO slots which have higher priority than Page Scan. At the connection state, a Bluetooth station becomes the member of a piconet. The station can...

Figure 57 MAC Frame Structure for Sectored Antennas

Mac Frame Structure

The MAC frame consists of Broadcast Channel BCH duration, Frame Control Channel FCH duration, Access Feedback Channel ACH duration and at least one Random Channel RCH duration. If there is transmission between the AP CC and the MTs, the Downlink DL phase and or Uplink UL phase are included in the MAC frame. If there is transmission among the MTs direct mode , the Direct Link DiL phase is also included. The BCH duration is fixed. The duration of the FCH, DL, DiL, and UL phases and the number of...

Architecture

The standard addresses two topologies ad hoc topology, referred to as Independent Basic Service Set IBSS , and infrastructure topology, referred to as Basic Service Set BSS . A topology that combines several BSS cells is referred to as Extended Service Set ESS . As shown in Figure 4.2, an ad hoc network or an IBSS consists of stations within mutual communication range of each other via the wireless medium. Such a network is created spontaneously, without preplanning, for ad hoc temporary...

Figure 1012 52Multiframe for PDCHs

Timeslot Diagram

Fiarne used tor irim Fra rr SO - l 1 Kad Slocks 1 dio WkK PTCCH . id I-rarne tmh T MA hmn fiarne used tor irim Fra rr SO - l 1 Kad Slocks 1 dio WkK PTCCH . id I-rarne tmh T MA hmn A PDCH is defined by a combination of a radio frequency channel and a time slot. On a radio frequency channel, PDCHs can be represented logically as eight physical channel instances see Figure 10.13 . The PDCH number presented here corresponds to the time slot number of the TDMA frame i.e., PDCH1 and time slot 1

GPRS Rei5 Architecture

Gsm Network Structure Ran Pstn

As shown in Figure 10.2, the GPRS mobile system consists of three main entities Mobile Station MS , Radio Access Network RAN , and Core Network CN . A mobile station refers to the mobile equipment on which a user executes mobile services and applications i.e., voice services, SMS . A mobile station communicates with the base station that controls the radio channel within its coverage area or a cell, so to speak . Multiple base station systems interconnect and form the network called RAN. RAN is...

Radio Link Control RLC

The RLC manages the network and thus exchanges control data between the AP and the MTs. The AP can have multiple RLC instances, where each RLC instance associates with an MT. There is only one RLC instance in an MT. The RLC has three functions Radio Resource Control RRC , Association Control Function ACF , and DLC Connection Control DCC . The RRC is responsible for detecting and efficiently using the available radio resources. It manages handover, dynamic frequency selection, station alive...

Figure 84 Bluetooth Protocol Stack

Bluetooth Protocol Stack Diagram

The Bluetooth Radio layer, which is parallel to the physical layer in the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection OSI model, defines the requirements for a 2.4 GHz Bluetooth transceiver i.e., frequency band, radio parameters, transmitter and receiver characteristics . The Baseband layer describes the specifications of the Bluetooth Link Controller which executes the baseband protocols and other low-level link functions. The Baseband layer includes the following modules LM, HCI, and L2CAP. The...

Figure 135 PES Packet Structure

Pes Packet

Transport Stream Packet Structure Figure 13.6. Transport Stream Packet Structure fa-w30 t Stream PasKe 1-P3 byte The list of PID and its associated values are included in the Program Specific Information PSI table. There are several types of PSI tables such as the Program Association Table PAT , the Program Map Table PMT , and the Conditional Access Table CAT . Figure 13.7 illustrates the PSI table structure. Within the MPEG-2 Transport Stream, there are multiple programs i.e., TV...

MAC States

The MAC as applied to GERAN Iu mode can be in one of four states MAC-Idle, MAC-Shared, MAC-DTM, and MAC-Dedicated. In the MAC-Idle state there are no TBFs and the mobile station monitors relevant paging subchannels on the PCCCH. Once the upper layers have a packet for transmission and connect with the MAC, the MAC will establish a TBF on a shared channel, SBPSCH, and it transitions to MAC-Shared state. The RRC or RLC MAC may also dictate to the MAC to establish a TBF on a dedicated channel,...

Physical Channel

Gsm 900 Channel Structure

The physical channel is defined by a combination of a radio frequency channel and a time slot number. Within the frequency band, a radio frequency channel seperated by 200 kHz is structured into time slots TSs as shown in Figure 10.9. Eight consecutive time slots form a TDMA frame. A time slot in a TDMA frame is numbered from 0 to 7. A physical channel is defined by a radio frequency channel and a time slot number TN in every TDMA frame. All downlink and uplink TDMA frames are aligned. At the...

Table 121 cdma2000 Frequency Bands

Japan Total Access Communication System The physical layer delivers the packets received from the MAC layer to the physical channels. The physical layer defines a combination of frames, modulations, and codes used for each physical channel. For channel access, the physical channel deploys CDMA, in which the information bits are spread by using a number of Pseudo-Noise PN chip signals a multiple of 1.2288 Mcps . The cdma2000 Release C defines two spreading rates Spreading Rate 1 and Spreading...

RRC Modes of Operation

The RRC has several modes of operation The RRC-Cell_Shared, RRC-Cell_Dedicated, and RRC-GRA_PCH. In RRC-Cell_Shared state the MS executes a cell update procedure on cell changes, monitors the PBCCH control channel for system information messages, and monitors neighboring cells for neighbour cell measurements. The RRC will transit to RRC-Idle mode when the RRC connection is released or when the operation mode is changed to A Gb mode. In the RRC-Cell_Shared state the MAC is responsible for...

Table 131 Dvbrcs Maximum Data Speeds

Dvb Rcs Network Architecture

Return Link Speed Forward Link Speed The DVB-RCS model is shown in Figure 13.1. DVB supports two channels the Broadcast Channel and the Interaction Channel. The Broadcast Channel, which is a unidirectional downlink broadcast channel, is identical to the channel defined in the satellite digital video broadcast DVB-S standard. The Interaction Channel provides bidirectional interaction communication between the service provider and the end-user. The Interaction Channel consists of a Forward...

Multiprotocol Encapsulation

Multi Protocol Encapsulation

Multiprotocol encapsulation method is used for transporting packets that originate from different network protocols on top of the MPEG2 Transport Streams in DVB networks. It has been optimized for delivery of IP packets but can be used for other protocols as well. A 48-bit MAC address is used to identify the receiver i.e., RCST . UDP IP or TCP IP traffic will be multiplexed into an MPEG-2 transport stream through DSM-CC sections defined in ISO IEC 13818-6 as detailed in Figure 13.10. Using...

Data Link Control DLC Layer

Protocol Stack Dlc

As mentioned earlier, the DLC layer contains three sublayers Error Control EC , Radio Link Control RLC , and Media Access Control MAC . In addition, there are logical and transport channels as shown in Figure 5.5. Logical channels are identified by the type of message they carry while transport channels are identified by the message format and the channel access method. The control messages and user data messages which originate from the DLC or higher layer are mapped to the appropriate logical...

Radio Resource Control RRC and Radio Resource RR

The Radio Resource Control RRC is responsible for radio resource management for Iu traffic, whereas the Radio Resource RR is responsible for managing the A Gb traffic. The relationship between the two is presented in Figure 10.20. Figure 10.20. Relationship between RR and RRC Figure 10.20. Relationship between RR and RRC The RRC and RR are responsible for allocating new dedicated basic physical subchannels as well as the intracell handovers of the dedicated basic physical subchannels. The RRC...

Figure 1026 PDP Context Activation Procedure Initiated by MS

Pdp Context Activation Request

There are cases where packets originated from the external network are received by the GGSN and are destined to a mobile station. In these cases, the GGSN will initiate the PDP context activation procedure shown in Figure 10.27. In Step 2 the GGSN acquires the routing information to the MS from the Home Location Register HLR . After receiving this routing information from the HLR, in Step 3 the GGSN sends a PDU Notification Request message to the SGSN and then the SGSN replies back with a PDU...

IEEE 80211e QoS Extension

Realizing the shortcomings of the QoS support within the current IEEE 802.11 MAC, the IEEE organization IEEE 802.11 Task Group E has been involved in an extensive effort to specify MAC enhancements for better QoS support. This effort and potential extension to the standard are referred to as IEEE 802.11e. This extension has not been approved yet. Hence this discussion provides just a simplified explanation and glimpse into the proposals and ideas discussed within this effort. The proposed IEEE...

TBF Establishment Initiated by Network

The network may initiate a TBF to transfer packets from the network to the mobile station. The procedure may be entered when the mobile station is in MAC-Idle state for Iu mode or in Packet Idle State for A Gb mode Figure 10.18 . Such TBF can also be initiated on PACCH if a TBF in this direction is already established. First the BSS performs a paging procedure to discover the location of the mobile station. After discovery, the BSS will perform resource assignment. The network may assign one or...

Figure 98 Channel Time Allocation CTA

Chanrei Tme Allscati amp n Inrormalon Elements mutate the- start tirre and Chanrei Tme Allscati amp n Inrormalon Elements mutate the- start tirre and Since the bandwidth is allocated using a TDMA scheme, the channel is fully controlled by the PNC and can provide QoS support. Therefore, CFP is suitable for isochronous data traffic such as video streaming, audio streaming, and video audio broadcast. We will discuss QoS aspects in Section 9.5. As mentioned earlier, CFP includes two types of time...

UMTS Architecture

Umts Access Stratum

UMTS Rel-5 provides the ultimate evolution of voice and data convergence. As shown in Figure 11.4, similar to GPRS architecture, UMTS consists of three main entities Mobile Station MS , UTRAN, and Core Network CN . A mobile station or user equipment UE communicates with Node B which controls the radio channel within its coverage area or cell. Multiple Node Bs are controlled by the Radio Network Controller RNC . UMTS's Node B is equivalent to GPRS's Base Transceiver Station BTS , while RNC is...

Figure 311 Token Bucket Mechanism

The token bucket preserves the burstiness of the traffic up to the maximum burst size. The outgoing traffic will maintain a maximum average rate equal to the token rate, r. Therefore, the token bucket is used to control the average rate of the traffic. In practical traffic policing, we use a combination of the token bucket and leaky bucket mechanisms connected in series token bucket, then leaky bucket . The token bucket enforces the average data rate to be bound to token bucket rate while the...

Macrocell Microcell Picocell

Pico Cell Umts

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS is a 3G technology that provides highspeed connection of up to 2 Mbps to support a wide variety of services, including multimedia services with different QoS requirements. As shown in Figure 11.1, UMTS evolved from 2G GSM technology and 2.5G GPRS. The effective bandwidth provided is up to 144 kbps for vehicular users, 384 kbps for mobile users, and up to 2 Mbps for static users. The recent UMTS Rel-5 added to previous releases Rel-99 and Rel-4 the...

Introduction

In the previous chapter, we introduced the fundamental QoS concepts. In this chapter we introduce a number of key QoS mechanisms that enable QoS services. At the end of this chapter, we provide a general framework for analyzing the QoS support of each wireless technology presented in the rest of this book. QoS mechanisms can be categorized into two groups based on how the application traffic is treated 1 traffic handling mechanisms, and 2 bandwidth management mechanisms see Figure 3.1 . Figure...

Hyperframes Superframes Multiframes TDMA Frames and Time Slots

As shown in Figure 10.11, the standard defines different duration frames. The longest frame, called hyperframe, with a duration of 12533.76 seconds, is defined to support cryptographic mechanisms. A hyperframe is divided into 2048 superframes, each with duration of 6.12 seconds. A superframe is divided into multiframes. The number of multiframes in a superframe is based on the type of multiframes. There are four types of multiframes 26-Multiframe This is a 26-multiframe that contains 26 TDMA...

Figure 1131 RRC Interaction between UTRAN and the Mobile Station

The mobile station can operate in either idle mode or connected mode. During startup, a mobile station performs the cell search procedure by scanning for the broadcast channel BCH . After a cell is discovered and the mobile station decides to join the cell sometimes called camp on a cell , the mobile station will be in idle mode and will keep listening to the BCH. In order to communicate with the UTRAN, the mobile station is required to establish an RRC connection with the UTRAN and changes to...

Figure 1132 Mobile Station Modes and RRC States

Rrc Process

In CELL_DCH RRC state, the dedicated channel is allocated. The RRC 1 reads system information broadcasted on FACH, 2 performs measurements, 3 selects and configures the radio links and multiplexing options applicable for the transport channels, and 4 acts upon RRC messages received on the control channels. In CELL_FACH RRC state, the RACH and FACH are allocated. The mobile station 1 maintains up-to-date system information as broadcasted by the serving cell, 2 performs cell reselection...

Table 92 IEEE 8021p Priorities and Traffic Types

0 default Best effort BE 1 Background BK Asynchronous data Default piconet traffic Asynchronous data Currently not assigned For valued customer Excellent effort EE Controlled load CL Video VI Video VO Network control NC Isochronous data lt 100 ms delay and jitter Isochronous data lt 10 ms delay and jitter In establishing asynchronous connections, the parameters included in the CTR command are slightly different from those in the isochronous connections. The DEV requests the total amount of time...

Mode and Iu mode

Http User Plane Protocol

Control Plane Protocol Architecture in PS Domain A Gb Figure 10.6. Control Plane Protocol Architecture in PS Domain A Gb Figure 10.7. User Plane Protocol Architecture in CS Domain A Gb Figure 10.7. User Plane Protocol Architecture in CS Domain A Gb Figure 10.8. Control Plane Protocol Architecture in CS Domain A Gb As shown in Figure 10.5, the functions between A Gb mode and Iu mode are slightly different. Iu RLC includes the transparent mode in addition to the acknowledged mode and...

L2CAP QoS Signaling

L2CAP QoS signaling exchanges the QoS information between L2CAP of master and slave. Such QoS information indicates the traffic characteristic and QoS requirements of applications called FlowSpec such as Token Rate, Token Bucket Size, Peak Bandwidth, and Latency and Delay variation. The QoS information is included in the Configuration Parameter Option field of the L2CAP control message. L2CA_ConfigReq is the L2CAP control message that performs the connection request. L2CA_ConfigReq requests the...

Figure 53 HiperLAN2 Protocol Stack

Protocol Stack Dlc

The convergence layer provides the protocol interface between the upper layer and the DLC layer. The standard envisions that HiperLAN 2 provides wireless access to the external or core networks such as Internet Protocol IP networks, Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM networks, 3G networks, and networks that use IEEE 1394 Firewire protocols. The data transport function of the convergence layer provides message format transformation i.e., segmentation and reassembly function between the higher layer...

Classification

The lowest service level that a network can provide is best effort service, which does not provide QoS support. In best effort service, all traffic is handled equally regardless of the application or host that generated the traffic. However, some applications need QoS support, requiring better than best effort service such as differentiated or guaranteed service. For a network to provide selective services to certain applications, first of all, the network requires a classification mechanism...

Figure 18 Telematics Scenario

Mercedes-Benz offers voice-activated phones, automatic headlights, and sensors that watch for nearby obstacles. BMW offers email access as well as its iDrive system, which allows drivers hundreds of options to access the car devices with a small control knob and on-screen menus. In addition, BMW's Mayday system offers wireless communications and GPS location services for 24hour emergency response, roadside assistance, stolen vehicle notification, and remote door unlocking. Similar services are...

Figure 513 DCCH Frame Construction Process

5.4.4.6 User Broadcast Channel UBCH The UBCH is used to transmit user broadcast data. The UBCH can be sent by the AP CC in the downlink and by an MT in the direct link. The UBCH is transmitted in repetition or unacknowledged mode. UBCH is transmitted through LCH transport channel. UBCH frame construction process is shown in Figure 5.14. The support of the UBCH in both MTs and AP CC is mandatory. It is required in Direct Mode if this feature is supported. Figure 5.14. UMCH UBCH UDCH Frames...