## Three Basic Technical Problems

As the reader can appreciate, satellite communication is nothing more than LOS microwave using one (or two)11 located at great distances from the terminal earth stations,

10FEC, forward error correction. (See Reference 3, Chapter 4.)

"For voice communications, connectivity is limited to only one GEO satellite link because of the delay involved.

Figure 9.17 Simplified functional block diagram of one transponder of a typical communication satellite.
Figure 9.18 Distances involved in satellite communications. One is looking down at or up at the equator (i.e., the circle).

as illustrated in Figure 9.18. Because of the distance involved, consider the slant range from the earth station to the satellite to be the same as the satellite altitude above the equator. This would be true if the antenna were pointing at zenith (0-degree elevation angle) to the satellite. Distance increases as the pointing angle to the satellite decreases (elevation angle).

We thus are dealing with very long distances. The time required to traverse these distancesâ€”namely, earth station to satellite to another earth stationâ€”is on the order of 250 ms. Round-trip delay will be 2 x 250 or 500 msec. These propagation times are much greater than those encountered on conventional terrestrial systems. So one major problem is propagation time and resulting echo on telephone circuits. It influences certain data circuits in delay to reply for block or packet transmission systems and requires careful selection of telephone signaling systems, or call-setup time may become excessive.

Naturally, there are far greater losses. For LOS microwave we encounter free-space losses possibly as high as 145 dB. In the case of a satellite with a range of 22,300 mi operating on 4.2 GHz, the free-space loss is 196 dB and at 6 GHz, 199 dB. At 14 GHz the loss is about 207 dB. This presents no insurmountable problem from earth to satellite, where comparatively high-power transmitters and very-high-gain antennas may be used. On the contrary, from satellite to earth the link is power-limited for two reasons: (1) in bands shared with terrestrial services such as the popular 4-GHz band to ensure noninterference with those services, and (2) in the satellite itself, which can derive power only from solar cells. It takes a great number of solar cells to produce the RF power necessary; thus the downlink, from satellite to earth, is critical, and received signal levels will be much lower than on comparative radiolinks, as low as -150 dBW. A third problem is crowding. The equatorial orbit is filling with geostationary satellites. Radio-frequency interference from one satellite system to another is increasing. This is particularly true for systems employing smaller antennas at earth stations with their inherent wider beamwidths. It all boils down to a frequency congestion of emitters.

It should be noted that by the year 2000, we can expect to see several low earth-orbit (LEO) satellite systems in operation. These satellites typically orbit some 500 km above the earth.

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