# Review Exercises

1. What four factors must be dealt with by a color video transmission system transmitting images of moving objects?

2. Describe scanning, horizontally and vertically.

3. Define a pel or pixel (besides the translation of the acronym).

4. If the aspect ratio of a television system is 4:3 and the width of a television screen is 12 inches, what is its height?

5. NTSC divides a television image into how many horizontal lines? European systems?

6. How do we achieve a sensation of motion in TV? Relate this to frame rate and flicker.

7. In North American practice, the time to scan a line is 63.5 ^sec. This time interval consists of two segments: what are they?

8. What is the standard maximum voltage excursion of a video signal? Just what are we measuring here?

9. Give two definitions of a composite signal.

10. At a TV receiver, about what S/N is required for an excellent picture?

11. If we were to measure S/N, we would measure S and we would measure N. In common TV practice, what measurement units are used?

12. What type of modulation is used to transmit the video; the audio, the color subcarrier?

13. On a TV transport system, end-to-end S/N is often specified at 54 dB. Then why is the TV receiver specified at 45 dB? Explain the difference.

14. Regarding TV transport, what is a program channel ?

15. To digitize a TV signal, what type of generic coding is nearly always used?

16. To digitize a TV signal by PCM, calculate the sampling rate for at least two systems.

17. Give the three basic bit rate reduction techniques suggested by CCIR.

18. Give three ways of reducing the number of bits per sample.

### 19. Discuss intraframe coding regarding redundancy.

20. What is the voltage value of 0 dBmV? When using dBmV, we should state another parameter as well, which we do not have to do when using dBs in the power domain.

21. How does differential PCM bring about bit rate reduction?

22. What are the two broadcast-quality bit rates that can be derived from the ATSC (MPEG-2) coding system?

23. What is one popular bit rate for conference television? Another?