The data-link layer consists of two sublayers: the media access control (MAC) and the IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC).
The MAC sublayer, besides conventional MAC functions, provides the additional mechanisms that are necessary for sharing the cable. These include:
• Ranging to compensate for different cable losses so that the CMTS receives all CM signals at the same level
• Ranging to compensate for different cable delays
• Assignment of frequencies to the CM
• Allocation of time slots (TDMA) for upstream data flow
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