## Impairments Fading In The Mobile Environment 1841 Introduction

Fading in the mobile situation is quite different from the static line-of-sight (LOS) microwave situation discussed in Section 9.2.4. In this case radio paths are not optimized as in the LOS environment. The mobile terminal may be fixed throughout a

DIRECTION TO ELEVATED

DIRECTION TO ELEVATED Figure 18.4 Mobile terminal in an urban setting. R, reflection; D, diffraction.

telephone or data call, but is more apt to be in motion. Even the hand-held terminal may well have micromotion. When a terminal is in motion, the path characteristics are constantly changing.

Multipath propagation is the rule. Consider the simplified pictorial model in Figure 18.4. Commonly, multiple rays reach the receive antenna, each with its own delay. The constructive and destructive fading can become quite complex. We must deal with both reflection and diffraction.3 Energy will arrive at the receive antenna reflected off sides of buildings, towers, streets, and so on. Energy will also arrive diffracted from knife edges (e.g., building corners) and rounded obstacles (e.g., water tanks, hill tops).

Because the same signal arrives over several paths, each with a different electrical length, the phases of each path will be different, resulting in constructive and destructive amplitude fading. Fades of 20 dB are common, and even 30-dB fades can be expected.

On digital systems, the deleterious effects of multipath fading can be even more severe. Consider a digital bit stream to a mobile terminal with a transmission rate of 1000 bps. Assuming NRZ coding, the bit period would be 1 msec (bit period = 1/bit rate). We find the typical multipath delay spread may be on the order of 10 ^sec. Thus delayed energy will spill into a subsequent bit (or symbol) for the first 10 ^sec of the bit period and will have no negative effect on the bit decision. If the bit stream is 64,000 bps, then the bit period is 1/64,000 or 15 ^sec. Destructive energy from the previous bit (symbol) will spill into the first two-thirds of the bit period, well beyond the midbit sampling point. This is typical intersymbol interference (ISI), and in this case there is a high probability that there will be a bit error. The bottom line is that the destructive potential of ISI increases as the bit rate increases (i.e., as the bit period decreases).