Echo and singing are two important impairments that impact QoS. Echo is when a talker hears her/his own voice delayed. The annoyance is a function of the delay time (i.e., the time between the launching of a syllable by a talker and when the echo of that syllable is heard by the same talker). It is also a function of the intensity (level) of the echo, but to some lesser extent. Singing is audio feedback. It is an "ear-splitting" howl, much like the howl one gets by placing a public address microphone in front of a loudspeaker. We will discuss causes and cures of echo and singing in the next chapter.
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