In many of the signaling systems discussed thus far, signal element duration is an important parameter. For instance, in a call setup an initiating exchange sends a 100-msec seizure signal. Once this signal is received at the distant end, the distant exchange sends a "proceed to send" signal back to the originating exchange; in the case of the R-1 system, this signal is 140 msec or more in duration. Then, on receipt of "proceed to send" the initiating exchange spills all digits forward. In the case of R-1, each digit is an MF pulse of 68-msec duration with 68 msec between each pulse. After the last address digit an ST (end-of-pulsing) signal is sent. In the case of R-1 the incoming (far-end) switch register knows the number of digits to expect. Consequently there is an explicit acknowledgment that the call setup has proceeded satisfactorily. Thus R-1 is a good example of noncompelled signaling.
A fully compelled signaling system is one in which each signal continues to be sent until an acknowledgment is received. Thus signal duration is not significant and bears no meaning. The R-2 and SOCOTEL are examples of fully compelled signaling systems.3 Figure 7.4 illustrates a fully compelled signaling sequence. Note the small overlap of signals, causing the acknowledging (reverse) signal to start after a fixed time on receipt of the forward signal. This is because of the minimum time required for recognition of the incoming signal. After the initial forward signal, further forward signals are delayed for a short recognition time (see Figure 7.4). Recognition time is normally less than 80 msec.
Fully compelled signaling is advantageous in that signaling receivers do not have to measure duration of each signal, thus making signaling equipment simpler and more economical. Fully compelled signaling adapts automatically to the velocity of propagation, to long circuits, to short circuits, to metallic pairs, or to carrier and is designed to withstand short interruptions in the transmission path. The principal drawback of compelled signaling is its inherent lower speed, thus requiring more time for setup. Setup time over
Next forward signal
Next forward signal
Figure 7.4 Fully compelled signaling procedure.
3 SOCOTEL is a European multifrequency signaling system used principally in France and Spain.
space-satellite circuits with compelled signaling is appreciable and may force the system engineer to seek a compromise signaling system.
There is also a partially compelled type of signaling, where signal duration is fixed in both forward and backward directions according to system specifications; or the forward signal is of indefinite duration and the backward signal is of fixed duration. The forward signal ceases once the backward signal has been received correctly. CCITT Signaling System No. 4 (not discussed in this text; see CCITT Recs. Q.120 to 130) is an example of a partially compelled signaling system.
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