CDMA means code division multiple access, which is a form of spread spectrum using direct sequence spreading. There is a second class of spread spectrum called frequency hop, which is used in the GSM system, but is not an access technique.
Using spread spectrum techniques accomplishes just the opposite of what we were trying to accomplish in Section 18.104.22.168. There bit packing was used to conserve bandwidth by packing as many bits as possible in 1 Hz of bandwidth. With spread spectrum we do the reverse by spreading the information signal over a very wide bandwidth.
7Delay spread is a variance in delay due to dispersion; emitted signals on delayed paths due to reflection, diffraction/refraction. Lee reports a typical urban delay spread of about 3 ^sec.
Conventional AM requires about twice the bandwidth of the audio information signal with its two sidebands of information (i.e., approximately ±4 kHz).8 On the other hand, depending on its modulation index, frequency modulation could be considered a type of spread spectrum in that it produces a much wider bandwidth than its transmitted information requires. As with all other spread spectrum systems, a signal-to-noise advantage is gained with FM, depending on its modulation index. For example, with AMPS, a typical FM system, 30 kHz is required to transmit the nominal 4-kHz voice channel.
If we are spreading a voice channel over a very wide frequency band, it would seem that we are defeating the purpose of frequency conservation. With spread spectrum, with its powerful antijam properties, multiple users can transmit on the same frequency with only some minimal interference one to another. This assumes that each user is employing a different key variable (i.e., in essence, using a different time code). At the receiver, the CDMA signals are separated using a correlator that accepts only signal energy from the selected key variable binary sequence (code) used at the transmitter and then despreads its spectrum. CDMA signals with unmatching codes are not despread and only contribute to the random noise.
CDMA reportedly provides an increase in capacity 15 times that of its analog FM counterpart. It can handle any digital format at the specified input bit rate such as facsimile, data, and paging. In addition, the amount of transmitter power required to overcome interference is comparatively low when utilizing CDMA. This translates into savings on infrastructure (cell site) equipment and longer battery life for hand-held terminals. CDMA also provides so-called soft handoffs from cell site to cell site that make the transition virtually inaudible to the user (Ref. 12).
Dixon (Ref. 14) lists some advantages of the spread spectrum:
1. Selective addressing capability
2. Code division multiplexing is possible for multiple access
3. Low-density power spectrum for signal hiding
4. Message security
Of most importance for the cellular user (Ref. 13), "when codes are properly chosen for low cross correlation, minimum interference occurs between users, and receivers set to use different codes are reached only by transmitters sending the correct code. Thus more than one signal can be unambiguously transmitted at the same frequency and at the same time; selective addressing and code-division multiplexing are implemented by the coded modulation format."
Processing gain is probably the most commonly used parameter to describe the performance of a spread spectrum system. It quantifies the signal-to-noise ratio improvement when a spread signal is passed through the appropriate processor. For instance, if a certain spread spectrum processor has an input S/N of 12 dB and an output S/N of 20 dB, then its processing gain is 8 dB.
spread bandwidth in Hz
information bit rate
More commonly, processing gain is given in a decibel value; then spread bandwidth in Hz
information bit rate
8AM for "toll-quality" telephony.
Example. A certain cellular system voice channel information rate is 9.6 kbps and the RF spread bandwidth is 9.6 MHz. What is the processing gain?
Gp(dB) = 10 log(9.6 x 106) - 10 log 9600 = 69.8 - 39.8 (dB) = 30 dB
It has been pointed out by Steele (Ref. 2) that the power control problem held back the implementation of CDMA for cellular application. If the standard deviation of the received power from each mobile at the base station is not controlled to an accuracy of approximately ±1 dB relative to the target receive power, the number of users supported by the system can be significantly reduced. Other problems to be overcome were synchronization and sufficient codes available for a large number of mobile users (Ref. 2; see also Ref. 14).
Qualcomm, a North American company, has a CDMA design that overcomes these problems and has fielded a cellular system based on CDMA. It operates at the top of the AMPS band using 1.23 MHz for each uplink and downlink. This is the equivalent of 41 AMPS channels (i.e., 30 kHz x 41 = 1.23 MHz) deriving up to 62 CDMA channels (plus one pilot channel and one synchronization channel) or some 50% capacity increase. The Qualcomm system also operates in the 1.7 to 1.8-GHz band (Ref. 2). EIA/TIA IS-95 is based on the Qualcomm system. Its processing gain, when using the 9600-bps information rate, is 1.23 x 106/9600 or about 21 dB.
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