The Open System Inter connection (OSI) model was developed by the International organization for standardization (ISO). The ISO developed OSI for networking. An open system is a set of protocols that allows two computers to communicate with each other regardless of their design, manufacturer or CPU type. Open system architectures are flexible structures set into fixed frame works. The concept of an open system approach to networking allows any device or system operating with any protocol to communicate with another device or system using its own protocol. The OSI model defines seven distinct levels in its communication model. In the following paragraphs all this levels are explained in detail.
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You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.