Payload data

Source and destination. These address provides routing information for the packet.

Sequence number. It is a number label for each packet sent by the source. It is 32 bit length. The order of the packets within the completed message frame work are maintained by the use of sequence numbers.

Acknowledgment number. It acknowledges the next packet expected to be received from the source. It is 32 bits length.

Data offset. The number of 32 bit words in the header is known as the data offset number, because it indicates how much the beginning of the data is offset by the header.

URG. Urgent pointer is set to '1' when the field contains urgent data. The urgent pointer indicates the offset value of the current segment and informs the receiver to find the urgent data indicated by URG.

ACK. Acknowledge flag bit is set to '1' to represent that the acknowledgement number is valid.

PSIF. This field set to '1' means that the receiver should push the data to an application as soon as possible.

RST. The reset bit causes the transport connection to be reset at the end of a session. It resets the connection.

SYN. A synchronization flag set to '1' when a node wants to establish a connection. A SYN indication is used to establish a connection in combination with the acknowledge (ACK) bit.

SYN = 1, ACK = 0 is a connection request and

SYN = 1, ACK = 1 is a connection acknowledgement.

FIN. The FIN flage set to '1' indicates that the incoming packet is the last packet. Otherwise, the final data segment is indicated by the FIN bit in the header.

WIN. The window specifies the number of data bytes the sender is willing to accept, inturn, from the host end. It is 16 bits length.

CHK. The TCP checksum is 16 bit long. It is used for error detection in TCP header and data field.

OPT. It is called option field

1 = no operation

2 = maximum segment size.

The TCP and UDP use port numbers to demultiplex messages to an application. A port number is a logical channel in a communication system. Each application program has a unique port number associated with it. TCP/IP port numbers, which are between 1 and 1023, are well known ports and are reserved for special applications by the internet authority.

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