The telecommunication system has to service the voice traffic and data traffic. The traffic is defined as the occupancy of the server. The basic purpose of the traffic engineering is to determine the conditions under which adequate service is provided to subscribers while making economical use of the resources providing the service. The functions performed by the telecommunication network depends on the applications it handles. Some major functions are switching, routing, flow control, security, failure monitoring, traffic monitoring, accountability internetworking and network management.

To perform the above functions, a telephone network is composed of variety of common equipment such as digit receivers, call processors, interstage switching links and interoffice links etc. Thus traffic engineering provides the basis for analysis and design of telecommunication networks or model. It provides means to determine the quantum of common equipment required to provide a particular level of service for a given traffic pattern and volume. The developed model is capable to provide best accessability and greater utilization of their lines and trunks. Also the design is to provide cost effectiveness of various sizes and configuration of networks.

The traffic engineering also determines the ability of a telecom network to carry a given traffic at a particular loss probability. Traffic theory and queuing theory are used to estimate the probability of the occurrence of call blocking. Earlier traffic analysis based purely on anytical approach that involved advanced mathematical concepts and complicated operations research techniques. Present day approaches combine the advent of powerful and affordable software tools that aim to implement traffic engineering concepts and automate network engineering tasks.

In this chapter, the traffic design requirements, various probability distributions, loss systems, delay systems and combination of delay and loss systems are described.

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