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The above table reveals the relationship between different STS. For example, STS-3 rate is 3 times STS-1. STS 18 is 18 times STS 1. The meaning is 18 STS-1 channels can be multiplexed into one STS-18. Similarly six STS-3 channels can be multiplexed into one STS-18.

SONET componets. Fig. 10.13 shows sonet's components. SONET transmission relies on three basic devices.

E/O : Electrical to optical converter

Fig. 10.13. SONET components.

E/O : Electrical to optical converter

Fig. 10.13. SONET components.

STS multiplexer/demultiplexer. The function of an STS MUX is to multiplex electrical input signals to a higher data rate and then convert the results to optical signals. The STS demultiplexers convert and demultiplex optical signals to electrical signals for the users. Both multiplexer and demultiplexer are described in section 10.6.4.

Add/Drop multiplexer (ADM). It adds or removes the lower rate signals from or into high rate multiplexed signals. It does this extraction or insertion and redirect it without demultiplexing the entire signal. These multiplexers use the header information such as addresses and pointers to identify individual streams. Add/drop MUX is also explained in section 10.6.4.

Regenerator. The regenerator performs the functions of a repeater. It receives the optical signal and regenerates it. If the optical cable is longer than standard, the regenerator will be used to receive the optical signal and then to regenerate the optical signal.

Comparison of SONET and existing digital signals.

Table 10.5 shows a comparison of SONET with the existing digital signals and voice channels.

Table 10.5. Comparison of SONET and existing digital signals

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