Fig. 10.25. Point to multipoint configuration.

Hub and smoke. The hub or star network provides some added flexibility in the event of unpredicted growth or changes in the architecture of the network. A hub concentrates traffic at a central site and allows easy reprovisioning of the circuits. A SONET multiplexer can be hubbed into a DCS where it is concentrated and then forwarded to the next node as shown in Fig. 10.26.

Fig. 10.26. Hub network.

Hub system is used in many larger organizations where regional offices are located and district or branch offices are tied into the network through the hub. The flexibility in accepting new loads and the development of blocking or non-blocking network are the features of this topology.

Ring network. Multiple ADMS can be put into a ring configuration for either bidirectional or unidirectional traffic. In ring architecture, where SONET automatic protection switching (APS), is employed. Fig. 10.27 shows the ring architecture of SONET multiplexers.

Fig. 10.27. Ring network.

The major advantages are :

(a) The bidirectional capability places the most robustness into the network.

(b) Survivability. In the event of cable cut, the multiplexers have the intelligence to send the services via an alternate path.

Hence the survivable services, diverse routing of fiber facilities, flexibility to rearrange services to alternate service nodes, as well as automatic restoration within seconds have made ring architecture a popular SONET topology.

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