1. List the end instruments and its use.

2. What are the primary functions of transmission systems ?

3. Define local loop and trunks.

4. What is the use of multiplexing ? List the variuos multiplexing techniques.

5. Distinguish simplex, half duplex and full duplex transmission

6. What is known as singing ? How singing can be reduced ?

7. List various impairments which affects the signals.

8. Draw echo canceller circuit and explain.

9. Define noise related to telecommunication.

10. What are the various sources of impulse noise ?

11. What are called cross talk ?

12. Explain briefly NEXT and FEXT.

13. Explain the various types of distortion.

14. What is BORSCHT ?

15. Consider a subscriber loop of 12 km long. The loop resistance is 1600 ohm. Calculate the d.c. loop resistance and determine the cable gauge for the loop.

16. Explain the concept of inductive loading.

17. What is the use of modem ?

18. What are the various types of modems ?

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