B log2 (1 + S/N) Where D& = Data rate in noisy channel (in bps) B = Bandwidth of the channel S/N = Signal to noise ratio.

For S/N of 30 dB and 3 kHz Bandwidth noisy channel, D& is 30000 bps.

Relation between baud rate (or symbol rate) and bps : The baud rate and bit rate are related as

where n = number of bits required to represent signal levels.

In the example considered for baud rate explanation n is assumed as one. Hence baud rate is equal to bps. Fig. 11.2 illustrates the relation between baud and bit rates.

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DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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