Chk

IP address

Options

Padding

Payload

Fig. 11.16. IP packet format.

Version. Contains IP version number. The current version is IPV4. Due to the growth of the internet and the address limitations of IPVA, the internet Engineering task force (IETF) approved IPV6. The IPV4 address size is 32 bits and can connect upto 232 = 4 billion users to the internet. The later version IPV6 has the address size of 128 bits. IPV6 has the features such as auto configuration (no human intervention), expanded addressing, simplified header format, support extension, flow labeling, authentication and privacy etc.

Header length. It represents the number of 32 bit words in the header. IP is an unreliable service. There is no acknowledgement from the destination to source. There is no physical connection between the source and destination. IP datagrams can arrive at the destination out of order.

Type of service (TOS). The format of TOS is shown in Fig. 11.17.

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