Isup Signaling In The International Network

In the mid-1980s, representatives from AT& T, British Telecom International, and KDD (Japan) started to define a version of ISUP for use in the international network 8 . International ISUP has been installed in international switching centers (ISCs) of many countries and is used for call control on a large number of international trunk groups. International ISUP, as documented in Rec. Q.767 9 , is a subset of ITU-T Recommendations Q.762-Q.764. Address signaling is en-bloc only (the IAMs...

Temporary Local Directory Numbers

We first introduce the concept of temporary local directory numbers (TLDNs). Consider a MSC identified by a particular value of AC-EC. A MS for which MSC is the home MSC has a MIN in the format AC-EC-XXXX. When the MS is being called, its MIN is the called party address, and PSTN routes the call to the exchange identified by AC-EC, which is the home MSC of MS. Each MSC identified by a particular value of AC-EC also has a pool of TLDNs, which also have the AC-EC-XXXX format. It temporarily...

Digital Transmission Systems [45

First-order PCM multiplexes are carried on two copper wire-pairs in a conventional cable. The pulses attenuate and stretch as they traverse the cable and have to be regenerated by repeaters (R), located at intervals of 1 mile (Fig. 1.5-5). Since it is difficult to maintain transmission systems with large numbers of repeaters, the maximum length of these systems is about 200 miles. The signals of higher order multiplexes can be carried on transmission systems of several types. The North American...

Acronyms

AIN Advanced intelligent network ASE Application service element AUTHR Result of the execution of CAVE AUTHRQST Authentication request CAVE Cellular authentication and voice encryption algorithm DMAC Digital mobile attenuation code DVCC Digital verification color code EIA Electronic Industries Alliance EIR Equipment identity register ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute GSM Global System for Mobile Communications IMEI International mobile equipment identity IMSI International...

Error Code Contents

The one-octet contents field indicates why a MSC, HLR, or VLR cannot execute a requested operation. Bits H,G,F,E are set to 1,0,0,0. Bits D to A contain an integer that indicates a specific error, for example 1 UnrecognizedMIN. The received mobile identification number is not currently served by the HLR, VLR, or MSC. 2 UnrecognizedMSN. A HLR or VLR has received a combination of a MIN and a MSN and, according to its records, the received MSN is not associated with the received MSN. 3 MIN...

Messages And Primitives

This section outlines the structure of TUP messages and reviews the primitives that involve TUP. 9.1.1 General Message Structure The general TUP message format is shown in Fig. 9.1-1 2,3 . Octet (a) is the service information octet (SIO) (Section 8.8.3), consisting of service indicator (SI) and subservice field (SSF). The value SI 0100 indicates a TUP message. The routing label (RL) is in octets b through e and contains the originating and destination point codes (OPC, DPC) and the signaling...

Ss7 Signal Units And Primitives

SS7 signal units (SUs) have different lengths but always occupy an integral number of octets (groupings of eight bits). A SU consists of an ordered set of fields with parameters. In the documentation of the early SS7 parts (MTP and TUP), the SUs are shown as in Fig. 7.3-1(a). Par.1, Par.2, denote the first, second, parameter fields of the SU. In the more recently defined parts of SS7, a SU is shown as a stack of octets see Fig. 7.3-1(b). Bits in the octets are numbered from right to left, and...

References

Porter, Advanced Mobile Phone Service Control Architecture, Bell Syst. Tech. J., 58, No. 1, Jan. 1979. 2. K. J. S. Chadha, C. F. Hunnicutt, S. R. Peck, and J. Tebes, Jr., Advanced Mobile Phone Service Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Bell Syst. Tech. J., 58, No. 1, Jan. 1979. 3. W. C. Y. Lee, Mobile Cellular Telecommunication Systems, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995. 4. Public Land Mobile Network General Aspects, Rec. Q.1001, ITU-T, Geneva, 1989. 5. Public Land...

Ccms

CCSA China Communications Standards Association CDMA Code-division multiple access DS Direct sequence, direct spread EIA Electronic Industry Alliance ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute F-PDHCF Forward packet data channel control function GSM Global System for Mobile Communications IMSI International mobile subscriber identity IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 ITU International Telecommunication Union ITU-T Telecommunications Standardization Sector of ITU...

Overview Of Signaling For Access Systems

Interface standards define an access system as a unit that serves a configurable number of subscriber lines and connects to a local exchange via a configurable number of digital links. The maximum number of digital links in a given unit is a parameter specified by the interface standards and determines the traffic capacity of the unit. If additional capacity is required, additional units must be deployed. The digital links in one unit are referred to collectively as an AS interface. With access...

Mtp

Component TCAP message SCCP message MSU Frame Figure 14.2-2. Architecture of transaction. SCCP then extracts the TCAP package and passes it to TCAP in an N-unitdata indication primitive. Finally, TCAP extracts the component(s) and passes them to the appropriate AE, in TC indication primitives. MTP, SCCP, and TCAP are described in Chapters 8, 15, and 16, respectively. 14.2.3 Application Independence of TCAP In Fig. 14.2-1, most ASEs in the IN and OAM AEs are application-specific. The TCAP serves...

Inap Signaling 1841 Overview

The INAP protocol provides the signaling functionality required by the IN application to realize services hosted in distributed (remote from each other) physical elements 20 . The communication function of a functional element contained in a PE consists of one or more application entities (AEs), each comprised of several application service elements (ASEs). The relationship between AEs and ASEs is discussed in Section 14.2. INAP messages are the physical realization of information flows between...

Ain Messages And Transactions

This section explores the most important messages and transactions of AIN 0.1 16,17,20 . AIN messages are grouped into a number of message families see Table 17.3-1. Request Instructions Family. The messages are sent by SSP when a trigger has been encountered and request SCP to provide instructions for handling the call. The names of the messages in this family represent the SSP event during which the trigger has been encountered see Figs. 17.2-1 and 17.2-2. Origination_Attempt. This message...

Info

Sequence Number E Extension Bit LI Length Indicator Figure 13.4-7. RLC PDU format for unacknowledged mode. Seq. No. Sequence Number E Extension Bit LI Length Indicator Figure 13.4-7. RLC PDU format for unacknowledged mode. 13.4.6 Radio Resource Control (RRC) Sublayer The RRC sublayer is present only in the control plane, which is another way of saying that it only handles signaling traffic. User traffic does not go through the RLC sublayer (Fig. 13.4-2) 45 . The RRC interfaces with the...

Introduction To Gsmmap

The remainder of this chapter briefly describes GSM-MAP, the mobile application part defined by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). GSM-MAP supports communications in mobile networks of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM see Section 12.7), which are installed in a large number of nations. As in IS-MAP, the main functions of GSM-MAP support MS registration,...

Regcanc

Registration procedures. On receipt of REGNOT, HLR first checks whether it has a record for a mobile identified by MIN. If so, it checks whether the mobile is qualified to receive service and if this is the case authorizes the invoking MSC to serve the MS for a certain authorization period. The regnot return-result includes the authorization period and, if requested in REGNOT, the service profile of MS. MSC-A or MSC-B and VLR receive the regnot and establish a temporary record...

Multiple Trigger Encounters

More than one trigger can be encountered during the processing of a call. For example, suppose that a call attempt is made from a line with an OHD trigger, and to a 900 number. The call first encounters the OHD trigger (in the collecting-information state) and assuming that 900 calls from the line are allowed next encounters a three-digit trigger, in the analyzing-information state (Fig. 17.2-1). Now suppose that a call has encountered a trigger in the analyzing-information state. In most...

Cdma2000 Air Interface

Cdma2000, one of the air interface standards recognized by ITU-T under IMT-2000, is the evolutionary offspring of IS-95 CDMA with which it can be made backward Figure 13.2-6. Call flow example of a soft handoff. Figure 13.2-6. Call flow example of a soft handoff. compatible when properly configured, cdma2000 cells can work with IS-95 mobile stations and cdma2000 mobile stations can operate in IS-95 cells. The main enhancement over IS-95 is the ability to support wideband data concurrently with...

Isc

ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ITU International Telecommunication Union ITU-T Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU LATA Local access and transport area LE Line equipment, local exchange NANP North American numbering plan PSTN Public switched telecommunications network R receive circuit of four-wire circuit S Subscriber, send circuit of four-wire circuit SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SONET Synchronous Optical Network STM Synchronous transport module STS Synchronous...

Telephone User Part

The Telephone User Part (TUP) was the first SS7 user part defined by ITU-T. An early version appeared in the 1980 CCITT Yellow Book. The 1985 Red Book and the 1989 Blue Book included a number of additions and modifications 1 . The term telephone dates back to the beginnings of the TUP development, when all calls were speech calls. The calls in the present telecommunication networks can also be used for facsimile and other data communications. TUP is primarily a link-by-link signaling system. It...

Networks

In everyday life, we think of the telecommunication network that allows us to speak, or send faxes and other data, to just about anybody in the world. In fact, the telecommunication network is an aggregation of interconnected networks of several types. Networks can be classified as shown in Fig. 1.1-4. In the first place, the (global) telecommunication network consists of national networks and the international network. In turn, a national network is a combination of public and private...

Subscriber Signaling For Supplementary Services

Up to this point, we have discussed subscriber signaling for POTS (plain old telephone service) call control. Today, customers in many countries can subscribe to supplementary services, for which they are charged a monthly fee. Every local exchange has a database with entries for each subscriber, listing the supplementary services available to that subscriber. The supplementary services offered in the United States can be divided into two groups. Custom calling services became available in the...

Sigtran

A RTP (Section 21.4.1) is not a signaling (L7) protocol and is used to transport packets in media streams, not for call control. a RTP (Section 21.4.1) is not a signaling (L7) protocol and is used to transport packets in media streams, not for call control. Figure 21.1-1. VoIP signaling protocols and their relationships in H.323 or SIP networks. Figure 21.1-1. VoIP signaling protocols and their relationships in H.323 or SIP networks. VoIP signaling protocols are application layer (L7) protocols...

Tup Support Of Additional Services

This section describes a number of services that do not fall into the category of basic call control and the manner in which these services are supported in TUP signaling 4,5 . The services to be described fall into one of the following classes. Malicious Call Identification. Multifrequency Compelled (MFC) signaling in many national networks includes procedures to identify malicious callers (Section 4.6). These are also included in TUP signaling. Digital Connectivity. Telecoms in France 8 and...

Introduction To Commonchannel Signaling

In channel-associated signaling (CAS) systems, the signaling information for a trunk is carried by the trunk itself. In common-channel signaling (CCS), a common signaling link (SL) carries signaling messages for a number of trunks. Just as multifrequency (MF) signaling became feasible with the introduction of the second-generation (common-control) switching systems, CCS was developed for the third-generation (stored-program controlled SPC) exchanges that were introduced in the 1960s. There were...

Dm

Call processing and TS assignment messages use SAPI 0. Path protection messages use SAPI 1. SAPI is discussed in Section 10.2. 6.2.2 Hybrid Signaling for Analog Lines Time-slot assignment, handled by messages on the TMC, uses the Q.931 ISDN protocol (Section 10.3), with the general message format of Fig. 10.3-2 and the value of the Protocol Discriminator information element (IE) set to 01001111. Given the limited functionality, a subset of the Q.931 messages is used. The most significant ones...

Message Contents

The main parameters in the invokes and return-results of the operations are listed in Figs. 19.3-3 and 19.3-4. When reading this section, it is helpful to look up the parameter descriptions (19.5.4). LocationRequest Invoke (LOCREQ). See Fig. 19.3-3. The invoke is sent by the home MSC of the called mobile. Par.11 (Digits) holds the digits received by the MSC, which identify the mobile. The home MSC identifies itself by Par.16 (MSCID) and may include its PC_SSN address (Par.18). Also included is...

One-way And Both-way Trunk Groups

One Way Both Way Trunk Group

Partial view of a telecommunication network. Figure 1.1-2. Connections involving subscriber Sp. Figure 1.1-2. Connections involving subscriber Sp. SLp, a temporary path across exchange A, trunk T1 a temporary path across exchange B, and SLr. The connections of Fig. 1.1-2 are set up (switched on) at the start of a call and released (switched off) when the call ends. Setup and Release. The setup and release of connections in telecommunication networks are triggered by signals....

1

Note QRY, query package CON, conversation package RES, response package INV, invoke component RR, return-result component. Source TR-NWT-001285. Reprinted with permission of Bellcore. Copyright 1992. Note QRY, query package CON, conversation package RES, response package INV, invoke component RR, return-result component. Source TR-NWT-001285. Reprinted with permission of Bellcore. Copyright 1992. Termination_Attempt. This message requests instructions for a call that has encountered a trigger...

Signaling Link Management

Signaling link management responsibilities at a signaling point are shared by the MTP2s of the individual signaling links and MTP3. This section describes the MTP2 signaling link management functions 7 . The MTP2 management functions monitor the status of the signaling link and, when necessary, pass status indications to MTP3. We consider a signaling link between signaling points A and B (Fig. 8.6-1). The management functions are performed by link controls (LC-A and LC-B). Each LC communicates...

Control Equipment

The control equipment 1,4 of early exchanges was implemented with electromechanical devices. Around 1955, it became clear that digital computers could be used to control exchanges. The speed and sophistication of computers at that time already greatly exceeded the capabilities of electromechanical exchange control Figure 1.7-4. Exchange with digital switchblock. LC, Line circuit H, hybrid circuit DMP, digital multiplex port TC4, analog four-wire trunk circuit CC, control channel. Figure 1.7-4....

IS54 Dual Mode Signaling

In IS-54 systems, the dedicated AMPS control channels (channels 313-333 and 334-354, in the A and B systems see Section 12.1.2) are used by AMPS and IS-54 mobiles. Some high-traffic IS-54 systems may require additional control channels. Therefore, channels 688-708 (in A systems) and 737-757 (in B systems) have been designated as secondary dedicated control channels. These channels can be used by IS-54 mobiles only, because AMPS mobiles are not designed to use them. Messages on Control Channels....

European Telecommunications Standards Institute 1031

Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations, TIA EIA-41 D, Telecommunications Industries Association, Washington, DC, 2002. 2. Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations Signalling Protocols, EIA TIA IS-41.5 C, Electronic Industries Association, Washington, DC, 1996. Now included in TIA EIA-41 D 3. Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations Automatic Roaming, EIA TIA IS-41.3 C, Electronic Industries Association, Washington, DC, 1996. Now included in TIA...

Versions Of Tup Signaling

ITU-T Recommendations Q.721-Q.724 1-4 are useful as a general framework for TUP signaling systems. However, many telecoms have found it necessary to tie down the loose ends, select options, and make adaptations to accommodate the services and procedures that already existed in their respective national networks prior to the introduction of TUP. As a result, there are differences in national TUP versions. This situation is comparable to the national versions of national R2 signaling. Moreover,...

What Is The Need Of Release Guard Signals In Interexchange Signalling

4.1.1 Interexchange Signaling Example Figure 4.1-1 shows a typical interexchange signaling sequence for a call from subscriber S1 to subscriber S2. The subscriber signaling for the call is not shown. After exchange A has received the called number from Sl, it decides to route the call via intermediate exchange B. Exchange A seizes an available trunk Tj and sends a seizure signal on the trunk. Exchange B responds with a proceed-to-send (or wink) signal, indicating that it is ready to receive the...

Dcch Ccch Dcch Dcch Dcch

Note RAT, radio access technology MS, mobile station BS, base station. RRC signaling messages are listed in Table 13.4-4. UTRAN standards specify message formats in the ASN.1 notation (Section 16.2) 46 , which makes it impractical to show their bit maps in concise form. The reader interested in the detailed formats is referred to 45 . As an example of message contents, Table 13.4-5 shows the most significant information elements in the uplink Direct Transfer message. The CN Domain Identity IE...

Channelassociated Interexchange Signaling

Channel-associated interexchange signaling (CAS) also known as per-trunk signaling has been in existence from the beginning of automatic telephony and was the only form of interexchange signaling until 1976. It is still used in telecommunication networks but in many countries has largely been replaced by common-channel signaling. Early CAS systems were developed independently by individual equipment manufacturers and exist in many varieties. Later CAS systems, notably those developed after the...

Signaling Equipment At The Local Exchange

This section gives an example of the equipment for subscriber signaling at local exchanges. We consider a local SPC (stored-program controlled) exchange with a digital switchblock (see Figs. 1.7-4 and 1.7-5). Figure 3.3-1 shows the local exchange and a number of subscriber lines. The lines are two-wire bidirectional analog circuits (c). They pass through their line circuits (LC) and are converted into four-wire analog circuits (d) by hybrids (H). First-order PCM multiplexes convert m of these...

The Bisup Signaling Protocol

Broadband ISDN User Part, or B-ISUP, is the ITU-T signaling protocol for public NNI 24-27 . Its main target is international connections, but use in national networks is allowed. As the name implies, B-ISUP is based on and derived from the ISUP protocol, described in Chapter 11. Like ISUP, B-ISUP uses the services of MTP-3, but as amended by Rec. Q.2210 28 , which defines what is known informally as MTP-3b. MTP-3b uses the services of SAAL (SSCF) at its lower boundary, instead of MTP-2, and...

Tm

Primary, or Signaling, or Primary & Signaling, or Primary & Secondary MM Mixed Mode TT Traffic Type TM Traffic Mode Figure 13.3-8. Example of Mux PDU format for FCH, DCCH, SCCH, SCH, PDCH (Mux PDU Type 1). Figure 13.3-9. Transmit operation for the Multiplex and QoS sublayer. Figure 13.3-9. Transmit operation for the Multiplex and QoS sublayer. The multiplex and QoS sublayer also determines the relative priority of requests from different sources, in order to ensure quality of service. F...

Signaling Procedures For Failed Setups

The signaling procedures for interexchange calls that arrive on ISUP trunks at an exchange where a setup failure occurs depend on whether the calling party is an analog subscriber or an ISDN user, and on whether the connection that has been setup so far has ISUP signaling all the way. This section explores a number of setup failures. 11.7.1 Calls Originated by ISDN Users, ISUP Signaling All the Way We first consider the case that the setup of a call originated by a user at exchange P has...

Atm Layers And Protocol Stack

Main Section Headings Osi Model

ITU-T standards define an ATM layered reference model (Fig. 22.2-1 7 ), structured along three vertical planes and four horizontal layers. The three planes are The user plane, which supports transfer of user (bearer) information. The control plane, which supports connection control (signaling). The management plane is further subdivided into layer management, which supports management of layer resources, and plane management, which supports coordination between planes. The management plane is...

Routing of IntraLATA Calls

Intra-LATA calls are handled completely by one telecom. In these calls, the FDEST is the local exchange of the called party. We examine a few routing examples for calls from a caller on local exchange A to a called party on local exchange D. In Fig. 1.3-1(a), the telecom of the LATA has specified one indirect route, consisting of trunk groups TG1 and TG2 The fact that a TG belongs to a route does not mean that the TG is dedicated to the route. For example, TG1 can also belong to routes from A...

Rlg Blo Bla Ubl Uba Ccr

Courtesy of ITU-T. If the record at V shows that its call on T is an outgoing call (to W), it sets trunk T to idle, sends a CLB signal to the previous exchange in the connection, and sends a CLF signal to W, which then responds with a RLG signal. If exchange V receives a RSC signal when the affected trunk T is idle, it responds with a RLG signal. 9.5.4 Circuit Group Blocking, Unblocking, and Resetting TUP signaling includes a group of circuit group supervision messages that...

Bell System Multifrequency Signaling

This section describes the multifrequency signaling system that was introduced by the Bell System after the Second World War 1-3 . It is still in use today, mostly in local U.S. networks. A nearly identical signaling system, known as the R1 signaling system 4 and defined by ITU-T, is used on international trunk groups in the North American network (e.g., groups between the United States and Canada). Supervision and address signaling are link-by-link. The system can be used on one-way two-wire...

Signaling Components In Telephones

This section presents an overview of the circuitry in a telephone, focusing on the components for subscriber signaling. The major components in a telephone are shown in Fig. 3.2-1. The telephone is connected to a line circuit LC in the local exchange by a subscriber line that transfers the subscriber's speech and the subscriber signaling. Transmitter (microphone) (TR) and receiver (RCV) convert acoustic speech signals to electrical analog signals, and vice versa. Transformer (T) and resistor...

MS Initialization

When a MS is powered up by its user, it needs to find the RF carrier in its cell that carries the CCCH, and then to achieve synchronization with the Broadcast Channel (BCCH), the Paging Channel (PAGCH), and the Random Access Channel (RACH), which enable the MS to listen to broadcast and paging messages, and to access the network, for location updating and originating calls. In the AMPS IS-54 system, a predetermined group of RF carriers has been designated by TIA as control channels, and a MS...

Contents of Hlr Vlr and AUC

This section summarizes the most important parameters of the MS records in the various registers. Home Location Register of CMN. This register has records for all mobiles for which CMN is the home network Mobile identification number (MIN) Mobile serial number (MSN) see Section 12.3 MS status (qualified or not qualified for service) If MS is currently served by a MSC in its home CMN, the MSCID (and optionally, the point code) of MSC If MS is currently served by a MSC in a visited CMN, the MSCID...

P

In ANSI documents, Data Elements (DEs), Package, and Identifier replace Information Element, Message, and Tag. Table 16.4-1 lists a number of ITU-T TCAP terms for IEs and their ANSI equivalent, or near equivalent. 16.4.2 Transaction and Component IDs ANSI does not have separate DEs for originating and destination transaction IDs. In query and response packages, the transaction ID (TID) value field holds one 32-bit integer, which represents the originating or destination TID value. In...

Amps Tone Signals And Message Words

This section begins the description of the AMPS signaling protocol. The protocol is based on the original development by Bell Laboratories 1,2 but includes a number of additions and modifications specified by the EIA TIA (Electronics Industries Alliance Telecommunications Industry Association) see 6 . The signaling between mobile and base station is a combination of common-channel and channel-associated digital signaling messages, and a single-frequency signal. The forward and reverse control...

Call Models And Triggers

When a SSP exchange receives a call that involves an AIN service, it initiates a transaction with SCP, to obtain call-handling instructions. The mechanism by which the SSP determines that it needs to query SCP is known as triggering. We say that a SSP launches a query (initiates a transaction with a SCP) when it encounters a trigger during the processing of a call. Triggers can be encountered by SSP at various points in the processing of a call. In order to explore the various trigger types, we...

Registration Cancellation

Now assume that MS has registered at MSC-B at a time that the authorization period for MS at the previous serving MSC-C has not yet expired Fig. 19.2-1(d). This is known to HLR, because the MSCID of VLR-Q is in its MS record. On receipt of the REGNOT, HLR executes the notification operation and also initiates a registration cancellation transaction with VLR-Q, by sending a REGCANC invoke. VLR-Q initiates a cancellation transaction with MSC-C, which then discards its record for MS. On receipt of...

Lapv5ef

C-channels can be provisioned to carry the following C-paths PSTN Signaling, Control, Link Control, Protection, BCC, ISDN Ds-data, ISDN p-data, and ISDN f-data. C-channels are assigned to TS 16, 15, and 31 in that order. After all three TSs in a link are assigned to C-channels, the same-numbered TSs may be assigned to additional C-channels in other links. One C-channel (assigned to TS 16) is always provisioned with at least the Control, Link Control, Protection, and BCC C-paths,...

Forward CDMA Channel

The Forward CDMA Channel, transmitted over the cell's carrier frequency, is separated from other cells by a specific offset of the short PN codes. A BS may also transmit more than one Forward CDMA Channel by means of frequency-division multiplexing (different RF carriers). A Forward CDMA Channel is subdivided into code channels, separated by Walsh codes. There are four types of code channels the first three are common channels that serve all the MSs in the cell, while the fourth is dedicated to...

Pstn

Disconnect Disconnect Complete Establish Establish Acknowledgment Protocol Parameter Signal Common Control Acknowledgment Port Control PSTN Signaling Protocol. The main functions of this protocol are Transmitting the electrical status of the analog line to the LE Instructing the AS to modify the electrical configuration of the AS toward the analog line Activating the TS (voice channel) associated with the subscriber line when a request for connection is received, and deactivating it when the...

Ho

MTP3 message with a signaling network management message in the user message field. (From Rec. Q.704. Courtesy of ITU-T.) Figure 8.9-2. MTP3 message with a signaling network management message in the user message field. (From Rec. Q.704. Courtesy of ITU-T.) To send and receive messages to from other signaling points, SNM uses the services of SMH in the same manner as the MTP-users. The format of a MTP3 message with a SNM message in its user message (UM) field is shown in Fig....

Q931 Callcontrol Messages

This section describes the network-layer messages and parameters for the control of circuit-mode ISDN calls that have been specified in ITU-T. Recommendation Q.931 8 and are generally known as Q.931 messages and parameters. The ITU-T specification is an umbrella the messages and parameters used in individual countries are subsets of those defined by ITU-T. Some national Q.931 versions also include special parameter values and codes to support country-specific ISDN services and TE...

Analog Subscriber Lines [45

Figure 1.4-3 shows a connection between two subscribers served by an analog local exchange. The subscriber lines SLs and the path P across the exchange are two-wire circuits. The power of an electrical signal decreases as it propagates along the circuit. This attenuation becomes more severe with increasing circuit length. The characteristics of microphones and receivers are such that a listener receives a sufficiently strong acoustical signal when at least 1 of the electrical signal power...

Signaling For Calls Between Isdn Users

This section describes the Q.931 and ISUP signaling for a typical successful interexchange call between two ISDN users, with ISUP signaling all the way 6 . We first examine the setup of the connection Fig. 11.3-1 . Trunks T1 and T2 have ISUP signaling. As in TUP signaling, an exchange decides whether to do a continuity check on the seized outgoing trunk, and informs the incoming exchange Section 9.3.1 . In this example, no checks are made. The focus is on the action at the exchanges and the...

Mobile Application Part

Chapter 12 has described the signaling between a mobile station MS and a mobile switching center MSC in a cellular public land mobile network CMN, PLMN . The present chapter describes the Mobile Application Part MAP of Signaling System No. 7 SS7 . MAP defines a number of remote operations transactions that support mobile telecommunications. Public switched telecommunication networks PSTNs are fixed networks. A subscriber line is fixed attached to a local exchange, which has a record for each of...

Amps Message Formats And Parameters

AMPS distinguishes two groups of messages, overhead parameter messages and mobile control messages. Overhead parameter messages are broadcast to all mobiles on the Forward Control Channels FOCCs . Mobile control messages contain call-control messages for individual mobiles and depending on the message are sent on forward or backward control, or voice channels FOCC, RECC, FVC, and RVC . Before exploring the individual messages, two general aspects of AMPS message words need to be mentioned see...

Identification of Ms Cmn Msc and VLR

In the United States, the numbering plan for mobiles is integrated with the PSTN numbering plan Section 1.2.1 . The mobile identification number MIN of a MS consists of a three-digit area code AC , a three-digit exchange code EC , and a four-digit station code. The MINs in this chapter are the counterparts of MIN1s and MIN2s binary numbers in messages on the RF channels between MS and base station Section 12.4.9 , but are formatted as ten BCD digits. When necessary, a MSC converts MIN to MIN1...

Digit Analysis And Routing 131 Destinations and Digit Analysis

Connections for interexchange calls are set up along paths that have been predetermined by the network operator. A route is a path to a particular destination. An exchange determines the call destination by analyzing the called number and then selects an outgoing trunk in a route to the destination. We need to distinguish two destination types. The final destination FDEST of a call is the local exchange that serves the called party. An intermediate destination IDEST is an exchange where the...

Time Division Multiplexing

Pcm Frame Format

PCM trunks are carried on four-wire time-division multiplexing TDM transmission systems 8 . Figure 1.5-3 shows a first-order pulse code modulation multiplex PCM-X for m trunks. In the example, the trunks are attached to the exchange as two-wire analog trunks a and are converted to four-wire analog circuits by hybrids H . A multiplexer PCM-X does the A D conversions of the signals in the analog send channels S and then multiplexes the resulting octets into the outgoing bit stream b . PCM-X also...

Sccp Messages And Parameters

This section discusses a number of SCCP messages for the transfer of information between subsystems. SCCP messages are located in the user message UM fields of MTP3 messages Fig. 8.8-1 . The format of SCCP messages is very similar to that of ISUP messages see Fig. 11.2-2, without the CIC octets . A message can have mandatory M parameter, with fixed or variable lengths, and optional O parameters. As in ISUP messages Section 11.2 , the mandatory fixed-length parameters appear with their value...

IS95 Call Sequences

The IS-95 specification describes call sequences in terms of call states for the mobile station, MS idle state monitor Paging Channel MS control on the Traffic Channel state and in terms of call processing types for the base station, Pilot and Sync Channel processing interacts with the MS initialization state Paging Channel processing interacts with the MS idle and MS system access states

Operations Related To Location Updating

This section discusses location updating, which is the counterpart of registration notification in IS-MAP see Section 19.2 . Its purposes are to verify that the MS qualifies for service this may include MS authentication, etc. and to update the HLR regarding the current MS location. Also, if MS registers in a location area covered Figure 19.6-4. Messages in a GSM-MAP transaction. by a new VLR, the VLR needs to establish a MS record and therefore has to interrogate the HLR 9,11 . The MAP...

Tcuerror Tcureject Tcrreject Tclreject Tcresultnl

Most operations yield information that fits within one component and, if the information is longer, it is segmented and carried in one or more RR-NL components plus one RR-L component. A TCAP message can carry multiple components. 16.1.6 Optional Dialog-Control APDUs In addition to exchanging components, an AE can engage in an exchange of information with its remote peer to negotiate and agree upon the application context Section 16.1.1 . That takes place when a...

Connectionless Sccp

Mtp3 Sccp Ssn Stp

This section examines the role of connectionless SCCP in the transfer of messages between subsystems. The material in this section is illustrated by a transaction in which an exchange queries a network database to obtain the translation of an 800 number into a routing number Section 2.1.3 . In Fig. 15.3-1, the subsystems ASEs denoted by Q800 and located at exchanges A and B make the 800-number queries. The subsystems denoted by R800 are located at network databases C and D and respond to these...

Reverse CDMA Channel

The Reverse CDMA Channel is subdivided into code channels, separated by long PN code phase offsets and structured as a sequence of 20-ms frames. There are ' MM Mixed Mode 1 bil IT Traffic Type 1 bit TM Traffic Mode 2 bits Figure 13.2-3. Example of frame format with multiplexed traffic Multiplex Option 1 . There is no Pilot Channel in the reverse direction, to reduce MS power consumption. Without a Pilot Channel it is not possible for the MS to acquire and maintain the strict phase...

Calls Involving Analog Subscribers

Isup Disconnect

Presently, the number of ISDN users is small, and the majority of calls carried on ISUP trunks are between two analog subscribers. This section explores ISUP signaling for calls in which one or both parties are subscribers. Figure 11.4-1 shows a call between subscribers in which trunks T1 and T2 have ISUP signaling. Figure 11.4-1. Call between subscribers. ISUP signaling all the way. Figure 11.4-1. Call between subscribers. ISUP signaling all the way. Setup of Connection. Subscriber Si has...

Overview Of Mtp Level

Link Status Signal Unit

In a signaling point, each signaling data link is connected to a MTP2. The MTP2 functions are similar to those of the signaling terminals in SS6 signaling. The primary MTP2 responsibility is to transfer MSUs across the signaling link, including error detection and correction. MTP2 also monitors and controls the status of the link 5,7 . The reliability objectives for SS7 signaling links are as follows 8 1. The probability that errors in a received MSU are not detected should be less than one in...

PNNI Signaling Sequence

Pnni Signaling

A connection is started with a Setup message sent by a preceding node, along the path specified by the DTL as explained in Section 22.6.1. The Setup message includes the DTL as well as the requested QoS parameters. When the node on the succeeding side receives the Setup message, it applies the GCAC algorithm again, to determine if it can meet the QoS requirements. If so, the appropriate resources are reserved, VCI and or VPI values are assigned, and the call is forwarded to the next node. If...

UNI Signaling Sequence

An example of a call sequence is shown in Fig. 22.5-3. The originating ATM endpoint starts a connection with a Setup message sent to the ATM switch it is connected to. The Setup message carries the requested QoS parameters. When the ATM network receives the Setup message, it can optionally send a Call Proceeding message back to the endpoint, while the connection request is processed. This is useful in large networks where it may take time for the response from the destination to reach the...

Digital Subscriber Signaling

Adsl Network Architecture

The public switched telecommunication networks in some countries have been converted often only partially into Integrated Services Digital Networks ISDNs 2,9,10 . An ISDN serves conventional analog subscribers and ISDN users. Digital ISDN users can communicate with each other in two modes. In circuit mode, the network sets up a dedicated connection for the call, which can be used for voice and data communication. In packet-mode communication Chapter 20 , the users communicate with short bursts...

Endtoend Signaling

ISUP signaling includes procedures for end-to-end signaling between the originating and terminating exchanges of a connection. The applications of ISUP end-to-end signaling are usually related to supplementary services and are similar to those of MFC-R.2 and TUP Chapters 4 and 9 . ISUP end-to-end signaling is possible only on connections in which all trunks have ISUP signaling. In this section we explore this signaling in a connection from originating exchange A to terminating exchange C, and...

Conn

D-Channel Signaling and packet channel on DSL DN Directory subscriber number DSS1 Digital Subscriber Signaling System No. 1 FDM Frequency-division multiplexing IA5 International alphanumeric coding ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ITU International Telecommunication Union ITU-T Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU LAPD Link Access Protocol for D-channel LATA Local access and transport area NPIBS Network-provided in-band information service SABME Set Automatic Balanced Mode...

Ain 01 Parameters

This section outlines the most important parameters in AIN 0.1 messages 17,20 . At this point, it is suggested that these descriptions are merely perused. Each parameter has a reference number e.g., Par.l . This enables the reader to quickly locate a parameter description when reading the material in the later sections of this chapter. Before describing the parameters, we need to make a few introductory remarks. Parameter Names. The names of most parameters consist of several words. This...

Utran Air Interface

UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network is the other air interface standard recognized by ITU-T under IMT-2000 6,9,27-30,33 . UTRAN follows GSM in terms of network architecture and network interfaces but shares with cdma2000 the radio interface technology and the ability to provide wideband data concurrent with voice. UTRAN is the result of the standardization efforts of the 3GPP council and ETSI Section 2.2 . UTRAN Terminology. The UTRAN standards use slightly different terminology from...

Sccp Management

The purpose of SCCP management SCMG is to maintain if possible the transfer of SCCP messages when failures occur in the signaling network and or subsystems, and to inform SCCP users to stop sending messages that cannot be delivered. If a failed subsystem has a duplicate, SCMG requests its SCCP to reroute messages to the backup subsystem 6 . SCMG has interfaces with the subsystems, the MTP, and the SCCP connectionless control at its signaling points see Fig. 15.1-2. N-Primitives are the...

Connectionoriented Sccp

In this mode of operation, a virtual connection is set up before data transfer between two SCCP users takes place. We distinguish two connection types. Temporary connections are established and released at the start and end of a transaction. Permanent connections are long-term connections that can be set up and released only by administrative or maintenance personnel. Connection-oriented service is the preferred way for transactions that involve the transfer of large amounts of data, which puts...

Mobile Assisted Handoff

The AMPS handoff procedure has been described in Sections 12.1.7 and 12.3.5. In this procedure, the signal strength of the reverse voice channel used by the mobile is measured on command from the MSC by the base station of the cell that currently serves the mobile and by a number of base stations in adjacent cells. As a result of the measurements, the MSC may decide to handoff the mobile to the cell that receives the strongest signal. This requires in each cell one or more measurement receivers...

Qq1q

Notes 1 Forward sequence number of last accepted MSU. 2 Changeback code. 3 Point code of affected destination. Source Rec. Q.701. Courtesy of ITU-T. Notes 1 Forward sequence number of last accepted MSU. 2 Changeback code. 3 Point code of affected destination. Source Rec. Q.701. Courtesy of ITU-T. 8.9.3 Procedures for Congestion Control The MTP2s of each signaling link constantly monitor the number of waiting messages in their output and retransmission buffers 11 . When this number exceeds a...

Introduction

CDMA, or code-division multiple access, is a digital wireless technology used originally for military applications because of its superior anti-jamming and anti-eavesdropping characteristics. It was developed for the civilian market by Qualcomm in the 1980s and commercialized in 1995. CDMA derives its name from the fact that all communication channels use the same RF carrier band and are separated from each other by coding. Although initially competing with TDMA, CDMA's superior bandwidth...

Rach

Note DL, downlink UL, uplink CCH, Control Channels TCH, Traffic Channels. they connect the RLC sublayer to the RRC sublayer and in the user plane they connect the RLC sublayer to voice and data upper layers. UTRAN channels are categorized as common, dedicated, and shared. The common shared by all MSs in cell and the dedicated used by individual MSs channel categories apply to physical, transport, and logical channels. The shared shared by some MSs in a cell channel category applies to physical...

Signaling Interfaces and Protocols

Bssmap Messages Picture

The interfaces and protocols for signaling between a MS and the PLMN are shown in Fig. 12.7-2 10 . ETSI has defined two interfaces the Um radio interface between a MS and the BSS, and the A cable interface between BSS and MSC. This is different from the U.S. cellular systems AMPS, IS-54 , where it is assumed that a MSC and its associated base stations BSs are supplied by the same manufacturer, and that the MSC-to-BSS interface is an internal manufacturer-specific interface. The A-interface...

Lower Layers 2231 ATM Layer

The ATM layer is responsible for cell formatting. An ATM cell consists of a 5-byte header and a 48-byte information field, for a total of 53 bytes. The size of the information field is the result of a compromise reached at the then CCITT between European and North American proposals. Both sides wanted a short cell for speed and efficiency, but Europeans advocated a 32-byte payload, while North Americans favored a 64-byte payload so it was agreed to split the difference. The header contains the...

PNNI Routing Protocol

Before addressing the signaling part of the PNNI protocol, a few words about the PNNI routing protocol are needed, since it plays a role that affects connection setup. Routing protocols are a basic function of packet networks and are used by Layer 3 nodes, such as routers, to exchange reachability and link status information without manual intervention. That exchange of information is done so that a route path from the source to the destination can be determined at all times, as nodes and links...

Sacch

Call originated by MS. From GSM 04.08 Version 4.10.0. Courtesy of ETSI. Section 12.9.1 . The network then assigns a SDCCH and returns an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message Section 12.9.1 . At this point, the MS and BSS tune their transmitter and receiver to the SDCCH. The MS next sends a CM SERVICE REQUEST Section12.9.2 , indicating that it wishes to originate a call. The network then decides whether to execute or skip the MS authentication. If the MS has ciphering capability, they...

Frequency Division Multiplexing

Multiplexing Group Supergroup

Frequency-division multiplexing FDM 4,5 is a technique to carry the signals of a group of n analog four-wire trunks on a common four-wire analog transmission system. In each direction of transmission, the bandwidth of the transmission system is divided into n 300-3400 Hz channels, spaced at intervals of 4 kHz, for a total bandwidth of n x 4 kHz Fig. 1.4-5 . Figure 1.4-6 shows a group of n FDM trunks between exchanges X and Y. In this example, the trunks appear at the exchanges as two-wire...

Messages for Mobility Management MM

This message is sent by the network on SDCCH to check the authenticity of the MS. It includes the random number IE RAND . Authentication Response. This message is sent by a MS on SDCCH in response to the Authentication Request. It includes the signed response SRES . CM Service Request. This message is sent by a MS on SDCCH to request a connection management CM service. It includes the CM service type IE, which specifies the requested service e.g., the setup of a...

Tcuabort

Figure 16.1-4. Transaction examples. case b , the invoked operation yields information, which is returned in an End message with a RR-L component. In case c , ASE-2 needs more information from ASE-1 before it can execute Invoke 1. It therefore returns a Continue message, whose Invoke 2 requests the information. After executing Invoke 2, ASE-1 sends a Continue message, in which RR-L 1 contains the requested information. ASE-2 now executes Invoke 1 and returns...

CDMA Coding

Cdma Coding

CDMA belongs to a class of transmission methods called spread spectrum after the fact that the baseband data from the source is spread over a much wider bandwidth than the minimum needed for communication. The use of a wider bandwidth is compensated by the fact that multiple users can access that bandwidth concurrently, without interfering with each other. Different methods exist within the scope of spread spectrum, such as frequency hopping FH and direct sequence DS . The CDMA...

Sacnxx Sacnxxxxxx

Service access code 700, 800, 900, 976, etc. First six digits of a 700, 800, 900, etc. number Complete ten-digit 700, 800, 900, etc. number The criterion for this trigger is met when a call is made to any NANP number to which the trigger has been assigned. Calls made by any originator line, private facility trunk using the NANP can encounter the trigger. 17.2.10 Terminating Attempt Trigger TAT Terminating attempt triggers TATs can be assigned to directory numbers covered by the SSP exchange....

Snb

Bicc Ipbcp

APM message carrying the IPCB message as an IE in the APT parameter carrying the IPBCP message as a BCTP PDU carrying the IPBCP message as a BCTP PDU Physical message path ------ Logical message path - 1 IPBCP message is encapsulated in a BCTP PDU and inserted into a H.248 message. 2 IPBCP message is extracted from the H.248 message, encapsulated in an APT parameter and inserted into a BICC APM message. 3 IPBCP message is extracted from the APM message, encapsulated in a BCTP PDU and inserted...

Introduction To Telecommunications

There are two types of communication networks circuit-switched networks and packet-switched networks. In circuit-switched networks a dedicated physical digital or analog circuit between the calling and called party is set up at the start of a call and released when the call has ended. Traditional telephone networks are circuit-switched networks and collectively form the switched-circuit network SCN . Today these networks are used for speech and other purposes, such as facsimile, and are usually...

Atm Addressing

ATM networks use two types of addresses for connection setup 1. Telephony numbering plan addresses, specified by ITU-T in Rec. E.164 Section 1.2 . This type of address is called native E.164. 2. ATM end system addresses AESAs , described in the Addressing Reference Guide and in the User Guide of the ATM Forum 33,34 . AESA are based on ISO's network service access point NSAP addresses, with some very minor differences 35 . For that reason they are sometimes referred to as NSAP AESAs or just NSAP...

Switchblocks

Control Line Exchange

Until about 1975, all exchanges had analog switchblocks, implemented with electromechanical switching devices. In local exchanges, the switchblocks were two-wire Fig. 1.7-2 . The temporary paths in the switchblock, and the circuits attached to ports P, were two-wire bidirectional analog voiceband 300-3400 Hz circuits a . Figure 1.7-1. Exchange equipment. P, Port CC, control channel. Figure 1.7-1. Exchange equipment. P, Port CC, control channel. Figure 1.7-2. Local exchange...

Subsystem Status Test Affected Point Code

SCMG informs its local subsystems about a status change of a subsystem at another signaling point with an N-state indication. N-PC-State Indications. These primitives are passed by SCMG to its local subsystems to indicate the status of a signaling point. N-Coord Primitives. These primitives are used when a subsystem that has a backup subsystem say, a network database wants to go out of service. Parameters. The parameters in N-primitives are listed in Table 15.5-1. Subsystem Status. This...

Scf

Inap Protocol Architecture

The IN application uses operations to realize its services Chapter 14 21 , with each ASE responsible for one or more operations. INAP AEs send requests to invoke operations and respond to requests with return results or with the invocation of other operations. Return results are returned for operations that request data from the recipient of the request, such as AddEntry, DirectoryBind, and RemoveEntry Table 18.4-1 invokes are returned when a request asks for instructions on what to do next....