Project Management Templates

PM Milestone Project Management Templates

The PM Milestone Project Management and Business Templates, Plans, Tools, Forms and Guides is a comprehensive package consisting of more than 7000 tried and tested Site Management and Business documents. These documents are specifically suited for the contractual aspects of Businesses and the project aspects of Business Plans, Human Resource, Tender Management, Establish, Planning, Execution, Safety and Hand over covering the entire Project Life Cycle. Now you no longer need to mess around re-creating project documents with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Visio, just use PMMilestone to build all your Reports, Spreadsheets, Plan, Proposal, Registers, Logs and moreeffortlessly! Read more...

PM Milestone Project Management Templates Summary

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184 Project Management Templates

All of the 184 Project Management Templates have been written by experienced consultants, who have drawn upon years of experience across a wide range of organizations. They are also unique as they: Are professionally laid out. Have the charts and tables you need. Come with step-by-step instructions. Contain practical examples. Include hints & tips's. Our set of Project Management Templates will not only provide you with all the templates you need to deliver your project, it will also provide you with guidelines, strategies, processes, and programme templates. Smart And Easy To Use Professional Project Management Membership Site. Helping Project Managers Increase Their Success And Deliverability. 200 Plus Project Management Documents And How To Write Technical Docs. Read more...

184 Project Management Templates Summary

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Official Website: projecttemplates.net

Work Breakdown Structure

In this chapter, we discuss the Work Breakdown Structure, a critical project management tool. The Work Breakdown Structure is a methodology for determining project activities by systematically breaking the project into deliverable-oriented packages. It is a systematic analysis of the full scope of the project, defining all the deliverables, and all of the activities required to produce the deliverables. The team identifies all of the project activities by creating a Work Breakdown Structure. When they finish they will have a picture of the full project. Then the team can proceed with the work, ensuring that all aspects of the project are covered. If any activity is not in the Work Breakdown Structure, it is not in the project. Therefore no one on the team should be working on it. So everything that is to be done to complete the project must show up in the Work Breakdown Structure -commonly known as the WBS. This includes all activities related to delivering the product as well as all...

Project Management Processes

The Role of the Project Manager The role of the project manager is multi-faceted. He has accountability for all aspects of the project. He must lead the team in producing the desired project results. The team has responsibility for the project activities this involves strong leadership. And it requires the use of effective motivation techniques. He must resolve any conflict that arises. He is accountable for all project work, including the planning, product design and development, the implementation, the administration, and the setting and meeting of all deadlines. He must make project decisions, and ensure quality work. He needs to secure agreement on the project scope, and to ensure that all project The project manager may write the project requirements himself, or receive these from the sponsor or other stakeholders. However, no matter who writes the requirements, the first neck on the line if the project does not meet them is the project manager's. So the PM has to be sure he or...

Introduction to Project Management in Telecommunications

This introductory chapter describes the telecommunications industry value chain in order to look at the types of companies in which telecommunications professionals work. A number of typical projects that might be encountered in telecommunications are described. These projects will be subsequently used to illustrate project management concepts throughout the book, although the illustrations will not be limited to these projects. This chapter also introduces the general concepts of Project Management, with an overview of each area, as a basis for the more detailed discussion in the chapters to follow. Working backwards from the right hand side, we first encounter the end user. Even here, we have quite a variety of profiles, and hence a variety of projects. The end user can be a residential consumer, using telephone service in his or her home. Or it can be a huge multinational business using voice, data, video and multimedia services in a business environment which needs to be secure...

Project Management

Many people learn project management on the job. Often people are offered project management responsibilities because they have demonstrated some excellent skills. Many telecom projects are highly technical. Sometimes management will decide to ask the strongest technical resource to manage a project, feeling that this person has the best capacity to understand all the inputs and to make solid decisions. In other cases people who have demonstrated strong management skills are asked to take on projects, because management wants to take advantage of the skills. Telecom companies have many projects underway at any given time, so project management skills are always in demand. If you learned this on the job and you never had formal training, you have probably learned quite a bit about project management. The problem is that you don't know whether what you have learned is the right methodology. Probably some of what you have learned is valid, but other areas require some tweaking or...

A couple of examples of component manufacturer projects

While the primary resource industry is beginning to get rather far afield from the telecommunications focus of this book, and the products themselves tend to be regarded as commodities, things are not so simple as they seem. Drawing fibre or rolling steel plate are perfect examples of process-oriented, rather than project oriented activities, but production lines have to be designed and built, mines have to be explored and dug these are classic examples of large scale projects driven by extremely detailed project management. A project is simply defined as an activity that has a distinct beginning and end, has a defined desired outcome, and involves a sequence of activities that is different from those in other projects. The telecommunications industry has always been a dynamic environment, in recent years, dynamic has become a great understatement. In an industry which no longer has a business as usual , innovative project management is crucial. This book is focused on Project...

Project Planning Integration

Before we start discussing the details of a project plan, or requirements for projects, it is necessary to understand what we are dealing with. Perhaps the best definition of a project is given in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, commonly known as the PMBOK .Guide -- a publication of the Project Management Institute (PMI). The PMBOK Guide is a book which describes the processes and process areas involved in Project Management, and defines most project related terms.

Project Deliverables

Every project can be decomposed into a small number of high-level deliverables. The Scope Statement must list the major tangible components of the solution (the major outputs) that must be provided in order for the project to be considered complete. These are the components that make up the 'product' described above. In addition, there must be at least one deliverable related to project management. At the highest level this can be just Project Plan , or Project Management . But since Project Management is going to be part of doing the project, it must be included at some point, and the scope statement is a good place to introduce it. If it is not introduced at this point, it must be included in the next step, the work breakdown structure. The deliverables should be first expressed as large, high level deliverables. They describe the 'what' of the project. Listing these allows people to comprehend the components of what the project is producing. These should be listed first as bullet...

Project Quality Objectives

Some companies are very focused on quality, and in these companies most people are generally fairly sensitized to the need to define Quality Objectives for projects, although even in these companies, this habit does not always extend to all project areas. In good project management, Quality Objectives are set for the project, and for the major deliverables at least. In fact, it is advisable to set these objectives for all activities during the detailed planning stages. In the scope statement the initial Quality Objectives should be specified, for the project itself and for the high level deliverables. The team should specify the performance expectations that must be satisfied in order for the project to be considered successful. These objectives must be consistent with any quality program in place within the company, and at times they must be consistent with customer quality programs as well. Quality Objectives should be consistent with the project selection criteria and with the...

Cost tracking and controlling

Cost tracking is also not completely straightforward. In addition to the problems regarding when costs should be tracked, there is the problem of determining how much of the work has actually be done on an activity, and hence how much time and hence cost should be tracked to the project. This is parallel to the issue experienced in time tracking. It might be wise to clearly communicate the tracking methodology to the team members, to ensure that they are consistent within the project, and also to management, so that they can correctly interpret project management data. Cost control falls to the project manager as well. The initial step in cost control is the cost tracking, together with comparison of the actuals to the budget. However, this is really cost accounting, and cost control is much more than that. In order to manage the budget, the PM must motivate the team to control costs. Given that funding is usually very limited on projects, this will require concerted effort, and...

Shannon even applies in projects

Since effective communication requires significant planning, the team needs to do significant planning. All of this is documented in the communications plan. As mentioned above, the team needs to document what needs to be communicated, by whom, to whom, when, why and how. And in determining the answers to these questions, the team needs to take into account the mindset and style of the receiver(s) of each communication. One of the best tools for communications planning is a communications matrix. It is not necessary to use a matrix for this plan, but when communications are not overly complex, the creation of such a matrix can be relatively straightforward, and the tool provides concise but clear documentation. The meeting chair is generally the project manager, for project meetings, but this does not have to always be the case. If the meeting is focused on a specific project area, perhaps the prime from that area will chair the meeting. Sometimes a stakeholder, such as the customer,...

Determine the Activity Durations

For each activity, we need to know the anticipated duration. Activity duration is best estimated by the person who will perform the task. The project manager should collect this detailed information from all team members. If the specific team member is not yet available to provide the information, someone with knowledge of the function should give the estimate, or one of the above techniques should be used to determine the best estimate. The duration of any of the activities is independent of any activity dependencies, and is determined by the work that must be performed. When obtaining duration estimates, the project manager should request that each person estimate the actual work time to perform the task, without adding contingency time. Contingency will need to be included in the project schedule, but this will be defined and added by the PM, to account for uncertainties in the activity durations, as well specific project risks. Including contingency in the activities as well will...

Creating the project budget

The Project Manager must work with the team to create the project budget. Contingency must be included in the budget. The method of calculating the amount of contingency that should be included is covered in Chapter 3. Once this has been calculated the project manager must decide how to include it in the budget. Contingency is addressed next.

Procurement

Any outside procurement should be done with the involvement of the Purchasing department. While most project managers are aware that they should work through Purchasing, some are not. Even when PM's are aware of the proper processes, they sometimes do not understand why this is necessary. Some even see the purchasing department as a roadblock to their project, adding unnecessary bureaucracy. Some of the newer companies do not even have a purchasing department, which puts the project managers at risk of legal problems unless they have a good understanding of the implications of purchasing activities. However, in most telecom companies of any size, the purchasing department is responsible for the procurement processes, and this department works closely with project teams. Depending on the organization structure selected for a specific project, the procurement person may actually report to the PM for the duration of the project, or may continue to work within the home department,...

Defining the Activities

Generally everyone associated with a project is anxious to understand the project schedule. As can be seen from the discussion so far, we cannot get to the schedule until the activities are first identified. These activities constitute the bottom level of the work breakdown structure. How are activities defined The team can use many methods

Including budget contingency

So this method is recommended only in organizations with a high level of project management maturity. It is recommended that the amount be spread by allocating smaller amounts to activity groupings such as milestones where the risks are liable to cause it to be needed.

Activity Duration Estimating Figure l Schedule Development

The purpose of the WBS is to assess WHAT is to be done (Activity Definition), and WHAT is to be produced. It must include everything that is included in the project, whether it be something for the project - in fact, all the project management must be included,- or something to create the product. The WBS shows all of this - the WHAT of the project. But only the WHAT. - Cardinal rule If it's not in the work breakdown structure, it's not in At some point in the breakdown, the deliverables actually turn into activities. At this point a verb can be added to the deliverable. The bottom level activities must be assignable to a single individual or unit. Until this can be done, further breakdown is required. The bottom level activities will be used to build the project schedule, and it is these activities that will be monitored. So they need to be clear, and the accountability for each must be definable. Cardinal rule If it's not in the work breakdown structure, it's not in the project....

Administrative Closure

Phases Telecommunications Project

Engineers can be involved in any aspect of project management and the project team. The primary role of the engineer is generally that of the team member responsible for the technical components of the product or service development. But frequently the project manager also comes from engineering. It is hard to imagine a telecom project that does not have engineering involvement, almost certainly using a technical prime, and probably also using engineers in other roles as well, such as project management or marketing. In addition to having strong technical skills, many engineers also demonstrate strong management skills. Such people are very useful resources for projects, often even as project managers. If the engineer has both the skill and the interest to manage projects, using him as a project manager is a very good idea. Before this is done though, it would be wise to provide PM training, so that he can use the proper PM techniques. It is surprising how many companies take people...

Inclusion of Contingency

What is contingency Contingency is the amount of money, or the amount of time, that the PM includes in the project budget, or the project schedule, to cover for the known unknowns, or risks. This is not an amount that is included due to a specific project activity. It is an amount that is over and above the activity budget. Why would anyone include additional money and time not shown to be needed by the project activities The answer to this is obvious, but because of the practices employed by PM's in the past, management is often suspicious of these inclusions. Project managers have been aware that things go wrong, so they have often included additional time and funding into their budgets to allow them to deal with the problems when they occur. But generally they did not have any tools to allow them to justify the amounts that were included. If we were to try to include the full amount that would be needed, should every risk materialize, we would have to request such huge project...

Reasons for establishing projects

We talked about start dates, end dates and timelines. These are obviously requirements of projects. Meeting these presents one of the biggest challenges for project managers. Cost. Most projects are allocated some level of budget, from the beginning, and the Project Manager takes on the project knowing that he or she cannot exceed that budget. Companies don't usually mind if you come in under the budget, but you generally can't go over the budget. So we've got to be very careful that we structure the plan and the implementation in such a way that we can produce the required results within that budget. Part of Project Management is the determination of the funding required to complete the project properly. At some point, the PM needs to decide whether or not the project can be completed within the budget. If this cannot be done, the earlier the company assesses this, the better. schedule. The project manager will discover this if he records the actual cost and schedule...

What defines success

Project managers are generally very ambitious and driven individuals, who live for success. No one takes on a project hoping for failure. Complacency regarding the project success is also not normal. So, to succeed, we need to be aware of the factors that will cause people to rate a project as successful. What is it that makes a project successful This list covers quite a span of the things that define project success. The project manager must ensure that the success measures are clearly defined for the project. He must also be comfortable with these as legitimate things by which to measure the team performance. In addition, many of the stakeholders will also have their own objectives, and these should be made known. Measures can be defined, and included in the project documentation for each of these.

Causes of failure

When this happens project managers expend a lot of effort addressing the funding issues when they would prefer to be working directly on the project. But frequently projects are under-funded - either from the beginning, or because things happen SARS, earthquakes, national economy, etc. We all have hundreds of examples of things that have caused our projects to be under-funded. In the real world we're working in, we often cannot predict many of the things that can impact our projects. How many people predicted that-WorldCom would be accused of unethical behaviour, Not learning from past failures. Learning from past mistakes can save huge amounts of time and money - if people just take the trouble to do so. In a mature organization, there is a recognition that failure will occur from time to time. If people are expected to take risks, then sometimes they will fail. And risk taking is inherent to some degree is every project. So having a failure, while not pleasant...

Stakeholders

Since these people do have something to gain, or to lose, from the success and direction of the project, it is possible, and even likely, that they will take some actions to try to influence the project or the outcome. Because of this, the stakeholders pose a potential risk (either negatively or positively) to the project. Thus, any wise project manager would be smart to be aware of who the stakeholders are, and what their interests are as regards the project. In fact, the project team would be wise to build the project plan, including the product plans, in such a way that they meet the stated and anticipated needs of at least the primary stakeholders. In this way they can minimize the risk to the project. One of the earliest activities that should be undertaken is to compile a list of all of the project stakeholders and determine their interest in the project. The list should be documented in the project plans, with an assessment of the how critical it is to meet the needs of each...

Great Idea

This assessment might be informal in some cases, but it is best if the company has a defined process for project acceptance. Then, those who might propose projects can be made aware of the criteria for successfully passing the gates, and they can provide the information to demonstrate the proper project value in the first presentation. Having such a process puts projects on equal footing, and also reduces the need for recycling of proposals for evaluation. In theory the Charter is written by the Project Sponsor (management) and used to recruit the Project Manager. In actual fact, it is often written by the Project Manager or the project initiator. If marketing generate the project, they might also prepare the Charter, and present a full Charter to management for discussion and acceptance. The sponsor can then use the document to recruit a Project Manager. Alternatively, the sponsor might discuss an idea with the Project Manager, and leave the documentation with the PM to complete....

Product Description

A project is undertaken to provide some macro deliverable, or product. The 'product' might not be a product per se, but a new service, or a process implementation. However, from a project management perspective, there must be something that is to be produced. It is this 'something' that is the 'product' that the project is in place to produce. The product description provides a brief narrative description of the 'product' (which is the solution to the business need identified above). If the product scope has already been defined elsewhere, then an appropriate reference to supporting details such as the operational definition and or contract should also be indicated. Unless this reference documentation is generally available to the project stakeholders, it is also wise to include an appendix with the backup material. In other sections of this statement the project and project management parameters will also be more fully defined.

Project Constraints

A constraint is a significant limitation to the alternatives that can be considered by the project manager and the team in providing the solution to the business need. All projects have constraints, and it is important to identify these early, and to make everyone aware of them. Therefore, those that are known should be clearly identified in the Scope Statement. This statement should identify the high-level limits (boundaries) that cannot be crossed by the project team when providing the project's solution. It is important to make a distinction between a constraint and an objective. A constraint is a criteria which must be met. An objective is one that it is desirable to meet. We could look at the project budget, and define an objective. We might say that we are allocating 2.3 million dollars to building a network to support the 200x Olympics. As the project progresses, we might find that despite all the good intentions and efforts of all involved, the cost to provide the network will...

Success Measures

The scope statement should be prepared by the project team, to the extent possible. At this stage, many of the team members are not yet assigned, so it might be necessary to prepare the scope statement with only a partial team. If the full team is not available, it is useful to at least include someone from each of the departments or companies involved, to ensure that their interests are covered. It is not unusual for the preparation of the scope statement to consume considerable time. For example, in the development of a new long distance service, which was one project in a portfolio of related projects, the team of 35 people spent a full day developing the scope statement for the project. After the statement was developed, they moved forward on the development of the Work Breakdown Structure, and subsequently decided that they could not complete this analysis because the scope statement had not been fully developed. The team spent the better part of a second day rewriting the scope...

O Success Measures

Along with the actual scope statement, we also need a Scope Management policy. In this statement we describe how the scope will be managed and controlled. We will ensure that the full project and product scope are defined and managed by creating the Work Breakdown Structure, which we describe next, and by monitoring and controlling the activities. However, there is more to scope management than this. There is also a problem known as scope creep. As anyone who has ever worked on a project can attest, there are multiple sources of ideas for changes and inclusions in every defined project. In most cases these ideas are actually wonderful ideas, which would produce a better product, or project, if they were implemented. But the problem with this is that once the project has been fully defined, the definition is used to create a project budget, a project schedule, and a full schedule. These fix the parameters of the project. Any changes or additions to the scope will cause corresponding...

Risk Identification

Identifying the project risks is the responsibility of the Project Manager, but everyone associated with the project should assist with this. The PM should spend some focused time on this, with the team, early in the life of the project. However, throughout the project people will continue to identify risks, and the team should always be prepared to assess these, and to put plans in place for dealing with potential problems. Project managers are advised to accept all suggestions of potential risks, regardless of the source. It is also advisable to meet individually with team members and stakeholders to collect any additional suggestions. All of these suggestions should be analyzed, and included if they are reasonable. Many risks have political overtones, and people may not be willing to suggest them in a public forum. For example, risks due to incompetent personnel may not be mentioned in public, particularly if the person in question, or supporters of that person are present in the...

Leads and Lags

When there is a dependency, there is a need to tie the two dependent items together in the right way so that if one of the items moves in time, the other moves with it. Project Management software will do this for you. Although it is somewhat cumbersome, this can also be done manually. The PM should always select dependencies to produce the simplest possible model.

Figure

Net Profit after Taxes (NPAT) is the bottom line of an income statement . It might also be referred to as NI (net income). Many companies expect the project manager to work with the income statement, although others do not. Many experienced project managers do not understand financial statements, because this is an accounting concept rather than one which is necessarily integral to project management. It is quite possible to use the project costs into financial statements if desired, and using this statement the team can evaluate the profitability of the project. The financial statements that would be used would be an income statement, a balance sheet, and a cash-flow statement.

Budget

Every project has costs, including direct costs, indirect costs, sometimes capital cost, always expense cost. Cost management on a project is generally done partially by the project team and partially by people in other departments. In this chapter we discuss many aspects of project cost management. Cost management encompasses estimation and tracking of costs, as well as cash flow and other economic concepts. We discuss cost control and other aspects that are project related. Also we discuss building cost contingency into the project budget. One very important concept related to cost is Earned Value. This concept is covered separately in Chapter 11, because it is a project management concept that links the budget to the schedule, and hence is not strictly a financial concept. Some PM's never have to address financial issues, but for others, it is a critical part of the job. In telecom, even during the good years, finances have been a critical component of projects. In fact the...

Some concepts

Capital costs must be depreciated over the life of a capital asset. The company will have a policy that defines the standard lifetime for types of assets, and the project team will use these lifetimes to calculate the depreciation. The company should also specify the methodology by which the depreciation is calculated, as there are different accepted methods in the industry, and the PM needs to ensure that the project uses the technique that is accepted by the relevant stakeholders. Working with depreciation is relevant to the product, and is used to create business cases or regulatory justifications. It may or may not be something that the project team is involved in, as it is not a project management cost per se. However since it is integral to the business case for the product, the PM should understand it, and at least be aware of the implications, as these could well need to be factored into project decisions. A short overview is included in this chapter. Costs that are expensed...

Cost estimation

As mentioned, the project manager will have to estimate the project costs, including all cost types which are relevant to the project. There are a few techniques which can be used for estimation. Many projects use all of these at different points in time. These include Parametric estimates use some measurable characteristic e.g. cost per line of code or per screen to estimate the cost of some portion of the project. This is generally applied to the product to be produced, but could even be used in the project management area - say to estimate the cost to analyze a change request, times the number of change requests anticipated. There is margin for error in the calculation of the parametric value, although many standard such values exist. If the team uses standard values, they should ascertain the basis These are detailed estimates that take into consideration all of the details of the specific product and project. Of course, these cannot be obtained until all of the project details...

Schedule Creation

Now that we have the Work Breakdown Structure, we can think about building the project schedule. Before the project schedule can be created, the team must identify the activities, and determine all of the interdependencies. In doing this the team can build a logic diagram illustrating the 'shape' of the project. Once the optimal structure has been determined this can be overlaid on a calendar, yielding a schedule. The techniques for producing a critical path schedule are explained. In this chapter we also discuss how to manage some typical schedule problems. Everyone associated with a project is impacted by the schedule, and a wise project manager will use assistance from all key people when building the schedule. The project manager has the overall accountability for the schedule, and will be the prime player in building and monitoring it. If there is a project assistant or planner, he or she may prepare the schedule and possibly also monitor it, particularly on a large project. Full...

Schedule control

Bottom up schedules require knowledge of all project activities, all activity durations, all activity dependencies. In order to get this level of information, project details such as resource assignment are needed for each activity. Therefore, it often takes considerable time to obtain this information, and sometimes, full information is not available until after the fact. However, this is the only fully accurate schedule for a project, so it is highly desirable to build the project schedule in this way. Bottom up schedules are built from work breakdown structure elements once these are available In this chapter we will walk through the steps for preparing the full bottom up schedule. First the project manager must prepare high-level WBS, usually with the involvement ofthe project team.

Schedule

One of these formats shows only milestones. Milestones are significant events in the project lifecycle. Many people do not need to know the details of the schedule, but they are interested in when major accomplishments will occur. For these people, the milestone schedule is sufficient. In the chart below we can see why it is wise to include milestones in a project schedule.

Matrix Organization

Thomas Kilman Model

From Keith Faradale's Comprehensive Project Management From Keith Faradale's Comprehensive Project Management One sort of project structure that is very difficult to characterize into categories of functional, project, or matrix organization is that of a research and development organization. A development group's workload is a succession of projects, which typically are well organized and tracked on a formal basis. Yet the development personnel are organized according to narrowly defined functional categories hardware and software design, system verification, etc. The multidisciplinary development team is entirely project focused, but typically reports to the same manager who performs both functional and project management duties. The development company then, can be characterized as a functionally oriented organization designed to support ongoing operations. The product that is churned out by this operational structure, however, is a series of well-managed projects With all these...

Critical Path

Besides the relative timing, we can also determine the lengths of the paths, and we can decide which path is the one that must be constantly on track in order to prevent the overall end date from slipping. This path is called the Critical Path. The critical path is defined as the longest path in the network. Since it is the longest path, its length defines the shortest time is which the project can be completed. And, if any activity on this path is not completed on time, the project will be late. So it is very important that the project manager carefully monitor all of the activities on this path to ensure that none of them will be late.

Depreciation is

For projects with capital costs, depreciation may be a factor in life cycle costing of the product. Let's look at four methods of calculating depreciation. Any of these may be used by companies to calculate depreciation. The project manager should check with Engineering Economics or Accounting to ascertain which should be used for a specific project.

Contingency

So, recapping, after we have the activities from the work breakdown structure, and we work through the dependencies, we can create the project network. Next we have to determine the expected duration time for each of the activities. At that point, we can then take the project network, and lay it out along a calendar. We would line up the activities with no predecessors at the beginning of the network, and they will extend along the calendar over the appropriate times. We can work forward one by one, till all of the activities are lined up along the calendar in the optimal configuration according to the dependencies. Then we look at every activity and determine who will do it. Some of these will be clear, because they are skill based. For others we may have some flexibility. At this point the picture starts to get interesting. We can now look at the calendar, and walk through day by day, or week by week, etc. We can look at this from the perspective of the resources. And we can get a...

Acknowledgments for the Second Edition

Thanks to those who reviewed the second edition and made helpful comments Steve Beaty, David LeBlanc, Phil Cox, Eric Pearce, Chuck Phillips, Greg Rose, and Wietse Venema - and to Bruce Schneier and Diana Smetters who read Appendix C on a four-hour turnaround Thanks to the entire editorial and production team at O'Reilly, especially project manager Madeleine Newell and production editor Nancy Crumpton.

Acknowledgments for the First Edition

Thanks to all the people at O'Reilly & Associates who turned this manuscript into a finished book to Mary Anne Weeks Mayo, the wonderful and patient project manager copyeditor for the book Len Muellner, Ellen Siever, and Norm Walsh, who converted the book from Word to SGML and contributed their tool-tweaking prowess Chris Reilley, who created the many excellent diagrams Edie Freedman, who designed the cover, and Nancy Priest, who designed the interior layout John Files and Juliette Muellner, who assisted with production Seth Maislin, who prepared the index and Sheryl Avruch and Kismet McDonough-Chan, who did the final quality control on the book.

Understand Ones Customers

The cardinal rule in building a functional site is to understand its users. However, the same site operating in different countries may target different audiences. For example, teenagers in the U.S. may have more discretionary spending than their European or Asian counterparts. A sport sneaker site targeting teenagers in the U.S. may target adults in another country. The per capita income of a particular region will definitely affect sales potential and project feasibility. On the other hand, the same target in a different country may also have different needs. Site planners must consider the daily functions and preferences of the local customers and organize sites to support those functions (Red, 2002). For example, while Web sites are becoming major portals for information distribution, many Asian cultures value personal contact. It is important to provide contact phone numbers instead ofbusiness downloads for a personal touch, or it could be viewed as rude and impolite.

Performance Phase of Development

(time, information, influence, and reputation) in nature. Pooling is facilitated by both the culture and structure of the network in which horizontal interactions, exchanges among equals, are based on trust. These resources are organized and controlled to attain the project objectives, and the management style is collaborative and accountable to the membership of the network. Pursuing these objectives gives collaborators opportunities to learn how they can make the network function effectively. In the short term, the level of attainment of the project's objectives dominates small wins and their public recognition are important to confirm the value of the network (Bouwen & Taillieu, 2004). Effective project management is needed. In the long term, the board focuses on the level of attainment of the broad goals of the network. To ensure that the projects and the general management of the network are aligned with the original vision and goals, effective leadership is required. Table 2...

OASIS Active Security

The OASIS (Open Architecture for Secure Interworking Services) research group at Cambridge University have developed a different PMI architecture. In their model, many novel concepts are used, which are very efficient in dynamic environments. In particular, active security has an updated definition of delegation, which is called appointments. The assignment of privileges is done to perform particular duty, so the grantor of the privilege does not necessarily have the privilege he gives to others, (e.g., a project manager) does not need to have permission to perform a specialised operation, but he can appoint a competent person to do that.

B12 BT uses Seagate Holos for project tracking

Isn't that a bit of, well, overkill, implementing a data warehouse and sophisticated decision support software like Seagate Holos just for project management Not if you're British Telecom (BT) with some 10,000 ongoing projects all of which have budgets, timelines, people,

Purchasing Cooperatives

Brokerage houses, for example, supply their good clients with desktop software. In this manner, they standardize the software and guarantee interoperability. The same model works for construction projects. If the customer (for example, a construction company) uses the standardized project management software, the supplier can then read the bill of material required and bid on supplying the components. The suppliers then become business partners with their customers. This also helps the suppliers plan their production schedules and inventory levels. (Ford has had such a system in place for over 10 years. The suppliers see the production schedule and supply the parts by contract just in time. The reduction of on-site inventory has more than paid for the implementation of the system. The original system used the X.25 network and custom software.) The objective is eventually to be able to run paperless projects.

Web Conferencing

Web-based collaboration offers definite benefits it is easy, it is cost-effective, and it allows companies to do multiple activities in a seamless fashion. But virtual teams are not without disadvantage. For one thing, virtual teams must function with less direct interaction among members. So, virtual team members require excellent project management skills, strong time management skills, and interpersonal awareness. In addition, they must be able to use electronic communication and collaboration technologies, and they need to be able to work across cultures (Bovee, 2004). A communication is conducted via the WWW between two or more parties persons in different geographical locations. It is in the form of synchronous real time or in an asynchronous environment (at our convenience and our own time).

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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