In a physical star topology multiple nodes are connected to a central component, generally known as a hub. The hub usually is just a wiring center, that is, a common termination point for the nodes. In some cases, the hub may actually be a file server (a central computer that contains a centralized file and control system), with all the nodes attached directly to the server. As a wiring center, a hub may in turn be connected to a file server or to another hub.
All packets going to and from each node must pass through the hub to which the node is connected. The telephone system is the best known example of a star topology, with lines to individual customers coming from a central telephone exchange location. An example of a star topology is shown in Figure 8.4.
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