Classification of Mobile Communication Systems

This book deals almost exclusively with GSM; however, GSM is only one of many facets of modern mobile communication. Figure 1.1 shows the whole spectrum of today's and -as far as can be seen - future mobile communication systems.

For the bidirectional - and hence genuine - communication systems, the simplest variant is the cordless telephone with very limited mobility (in Europe especially the DECT standard). This technology is also employed for the expansion of digital PBXs with mobile extensions. A related concept is Radio in the Local Loop (RLL) or Wireless Local Loop (WLL). Both concepts require only limited mobility.

Local Area Networks (LANs) have also been augmented with mobility functions: Wireless LANs have been standardized and are now offered by several companies. WLANs offer IP-based, wireless data communication with very high bit rates but limited mobility. IEEE 802.11 systems transmit up to 11 Mbit/s, and HIPERLAN will offer up to 25 Mbit/s. Both systems form pico-cellular networks. They are installed, for example, in office environ ments and airports, as supplement or alternative to wired LANs, and they are also considered to be a good supplement to UMTS access technologies. The efforts to "mobilize" the Internet are also worth mentioning in this context. A new routing protocol called Mobile IP [48,49] has been developed, which allows a mobile computer to change its point of attachment to the Internet. A further strong innovation impulse for mobile data and multimedia communication is the development of wireless Mobile ATM systems based on the exchange technology Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).

Mobile Communication Classification

Mûtala dü'a neivmr mobile IP. winelesaLAM _ (HIPERLAN. BC211J.

Packet Radio


Digital trucked radio TETRA

Privais Mot- It! Redis

MoL lu ATM

Analog cellular systems ONstz, NMT, AMPS

Digital cellular systems GSM

Dig cardFess systems Digital PBX DECT


Analog oordlass phones

Cordless public telephone

Wireless Local Loop WLL Rad» in ma Local Loop HLL

Satatlita systems Inmarsat

Satellite systems LEO. MEO

Paging systems ERMES

Paging systems

Generation 1

Generation 2 Generation 2.5 Generation 3

Figure 1.1: Overview of contemporary and future mobile communication systems

Another emerging class of wireless networks is used for short-range communication. Bluetooth, for example, replaces cables by enabling direct wireless information exchange between electronic devices (e.g. between cellular phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), computers, and peripherals). These networks are also called Body Area Networks or Personal Area Networks. Unlike the mobile technologies mentioned above, they are not based on a fixed network infrastructure (e.g. base stations). The possibility of building up such networks in a spontaneous and fast way gave them the name ad hoc networks. WLAN technologies also include the capability for peer-to-peer ad hoc communication (besides the classical client-to-base station transmission modus).

GSM belongs to the class of cellular networks, which are used predominantly for public mass communication. They had an early success with analog systems like the Advance Mobile Phone System (AMPS) in America, the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) in Scandinavia, or the C-Netz in Germany. Founded on the digital system GSM (with its variants for 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 1900 MHz), a market with millions of subscribers worldwide was generated, and it represents an important economic force. A strongly contributing factor to this rapid development of markets and technologies has been the deregulation of the telecommunication markets, which allowed the establishment of new network operators.

Another competing or supplementing technology is satellite communication based on Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) or Medium Earth Orbiting (MEO) satellites, which also offers global, and in the long term even broadband, communication services. Trunked radio systems - in digital form with the European standard Trans European Trunked Radio (TETRA) - are used for business applications like fleet control. They offer private services that are only accessible by closed user groups.

Besides bidirectional communication systems, there also exists a variety of unidirectional systems, where subscribers can only receive but not send data. With unidirectional message systems (paging systems) users may receive short text messages. A couple of years ago, paging systems were very popular, since they offered a cost-effective reachability with wide-area coverage. Today, the SMS in GSM has replaced the function of paging systems. Some billion SMS messages are being exchanged between mobile GSM users each month. Digital broadcast systems, such as Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) and Digital Video Broadcast (DVB), are very interesting for wireless transmission of radio and television stations as well as for audio- and video-on-demand and broadband transmission of Internet pages.

The path to the future universal telecommunication networks (UMTS/IMT-2000) has been opened with the realization of the personal communication services, Universal Personal Telecommunication (UPT), based on intelligent networks. During the last few years, the huge success of GSM as well as the exploding number of Internet users gave the design and development of third generation mobile systems a new orientation: One of the most important goals in the evolution from GSM to UMTS is to offer an efficient and powerful mobile access to the Internet.

GSM and its enhancements, however, will remain for many years the technological base for mobile communication, and it continues to open up new application areas. At the moment, the area of mobile e-commerce (e.g. mobile payment with cellular phones, mobile banking) is particularly attractive. Also text-based news services, locating, fleet management, telemetry applications, and automatic emergency call systems are of great interest. The techniques and procedures presented in this book are the foundation for such innovative applications.

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  • burtuka
    How cellular configuration of mobile communication is classified?
    2 years ago
  • sophie hirsch
    How many system for mobile communication classification ?
    2 years ago
  • Sheshy Robel
    What are the classification of G S M network services?
    2 years ago

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