Queuing and congestion avoidance mechanisms

Queuing mechanisms employed on routers classify incoming data flows according to attributes such as source and destination IP address, protocol used, or port number. It then lines them up in multiple parallel queues according to their classification. It then grants each of these individual flows a percentage of the available bandwidth.

Congestion mechanisms try to prevent data from being sent to already congested routes. This is done by using mechanisms such as random early detection (RED) to predict when congestion will occur, rather than leaving it up to TCP's built-in mechanism which causes packets to be dropped when congestion eventually does occur.

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