References

A pattern language. London Oxford University Press. Bluez (2003), text message in online Bluetooth discussion group, accessed March 15, 2004, at http bluez.sourceforge.net download zaurus README.bluez.zaurus.new.txt Chapanis, A. (1996). Human factors in systems engineering. New York John Wiley & Sons. Chia, C.H., Hazam A.,,& Ho, K.A. (2001). WAP The impact of the mobility mandate in Asia, a Singapore perspective. Research Report, Singapore Information Management...

Critical Issues

When we look at the world, we do so in various ways. We can stand still, and look at scenes that either move across our visual field or are motionless. When we do this, we behave as though we were looking through a window. The window is one of the most powerful ways we have for defining our visual representations. The aperture of a camera is like a window. When we take a picture, the window-like image is frozen in time. The frame of a painting functions in the same way. Whether the scene...

Mobile Agent Disadvantages

In the following we present a list ofthe major problems A successful mobile agent system should be designed for mobile agent approach based on the following six models. The implementa- tion of these models depends on the agent construction tools. Agent model It defines the intelligent part (autonomy, reasoning, learning, etc.) of the agent internal structure. Computational model It defines how the agent executes its self when it is in its running states (see Figure 4). In general, this model is...

Conclusion

It is comparable to the state of radio transmission in the last year of the 19th century. It worked, but what exactly was it and how could it be used The British saw radio as a means of contacting their navy by Morse code and so ofholding their empire together. No one in 1899 foresaw its use first for the transmission ofvoices and music and then for television. Soon radio will be used for transmitting virtual reality and one ofthe modes ofHR in the future will...

Key Terms

Articulatory Synthesis Articulatory synthesis is the production of speech based on an actual model of the human vocal tract. Such an approach is very complex and computationally intensive. It is almost impossible to model the vocal chords, tongue movements, or other characteristics of the human vocal system perfectly (Lemmetty, 1999). Concatenative Synthesis Concatenative synthesis is the combining of a sequence of prerecorded natural utterances from an auditory database to produce arbitrary...

POF in Sensor Technology

In sensor technology, the great diameter of POF in many areas of application is of special interest. The two essential areas for making use of POF are the sole transmission of sensor data and, in particular, the use of the POF itself as a sensor. POF is very suitable as a distance or movement sensor in which the reflected light is measured (Kaino, 1986). Table 2. Technologies for home networks Table 2. Technologies for home networks Very easy cross-linking limited capacity Supports several...

Business Continuity Plan

BCP (Calder & Watkins, 2003) is a plan that consists of a set of activities aimed at reducing the likelihood and limiting the impact of disaster events on critical business processes. By the practice of BCP, the impact and downtime ofthe hospital's PACS system operation due to some change or failure in the company operation procedure is reduced. BCP is used to make sure that the critical part of the PACS system operation is not affected by a critical failure or disaster. The design of this...

Organizational Factors

Organizational factors address the resources that an organization has available to support the adoption (McGowan & Madey, 1998). These include firm size, financial and technological resources (including IT support), and top management support. While some studies have focused on individual factors, some recent research has emphasized all of these organizational factors under the title of dynamic capabilities (Helfat & Raubitschek, 2000). Dynamic capabilities are firm-level attributes that...

Obs Core Nodes

An OBS core node consists oftwo main components (Vokkarane & Jue, 2003 Xiong, Vandenhoute & Cankaya, 2000) an optical cross connect (OXC) and a switch control unit (SCU), also called a signaling engine. The SCU implements the OBS signaling protocol and creates and maintains the forwarding table and configures the OXC. Kan, Balt, Michel, and Verchere (2001) summarize the operations that an OBS core node needs to perform, which are the following Demultiplexes the wavelength data channels...

Net Present Value NPV Analysis

The time value of investment is represented in NPV. The NPV rule assumes that either the investment is reversible, or, if the investment is irreversible, the firm can only invest now, otherwise it will never be able to do so in the future (Tallon et al., 2002). While NPV provides information about the time value ofthe investment, it does not take into account the risks or opportunities created by stopping, decreasing, or increasing investment in the future (Kohli & Sherer, 2002). In fact,...

Advantages Offered By Multimedia Data Mining

In multimedia data mining, classification is mainly interpreted as object recognition. Object models (e.g., letters or digits) are known a priori, and an automatic recognition system finds letters or digits from handwritten or scanned documents. Other examples are the identification of images or scenarios on the basis of sets of visual data from photos, satellites, or aero observations the finding of common patterns in a set of images and the identification of speakers and words in speech...

Background

Unlike traditional watermarks on paper, which are visible to the eyes, digital watermarks can be designed to be imperceptible and removable. Throughout the rest of this article, the term watermark(ing) is used to refer to digital watermark(ing). Various types of watermarking schemes have been proposed for different applications. For copyright-related applications, the embedded watermark is expected to be immune to various kinds of malicious and non-malicious manipulations to some extent,...

Limitations Of The Mobile Device

Cellular communication is wireless communication between mobile devices (e.g., cell phones, PDAs, and PCs) and fixed base stations. A base station serves mobile devices within a relatively small area of a few square miles (called a cell). The base stations are interconnected by fixed telecommunication infrastructure that provides connection with other telecommunication systems. When a mobile device passes from the cell of one base station to that of another, the first base station hands off...

Introduction

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with changes of one or more independent variables, and each can be any physical value, such as time, distance, position, temperature, or pressure (Oppenheim & Schafer, 1999 Elali, 2003 Smith, 2002). The independent variable is usually referred to as time. Examples of signals that we frequently encounter are speech, music, picture, and video signals. Ifthe independent variable is continuous, the signal is called continuous-time signal...

Digital Watermarks In

Authentication of the host document is one important use of digital watermarks. In this scenario, a watermark is inserted into the cover work, resulting in a stego-object. Stripping offthe watermark should yield the original cover work. Common uses of authentication watermarks include verification of object content (Mintzer, Braudaway & Bell, 1998) and copyright protection (Acken, 1998). The general concept of watermarking works in the following way. W + M S, where W is the cover work, M is...

Strategic Alignment

Despite the wide recognition of the importance of IT alignment, studies have indicated that firms struggle to achieve alignment (Chan et al., 1997 Luftman 2004). For example, Luftman (2004) places most large firms that he has studied at an IT alignment maturity level of 2, on his scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is least mature not aligned and 5 indicates mature fully aligned. As a result, some researchers have examined factors that influence IT alignment in an attempt to understand how firms can...

Signal Modulation

Modulation is the process oftransmitting information on a wire after encoding it electrically. When ADSL was first deployed on a commercial basis, carrierless amplitude-phase (CAP) modulation was used to modulate signals over the line. CAP works by dividing the line into three subchannels one for voice, one for upstream access, and another for downstream access. It has since been largely superseded by another technique called discrete multitone (DMT), which is a signal-coding technique invented...

Introduction To Speech Synthesis

Speech synthesis is the process of producing naturalsounding, highly intelligible synthetic speech simulated by a machine in such a way that it sounds as if it was produced by a human vocal system. A text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis system is a computer-based system where the input is text and the output is a simulated vocalization ofthat text. Before the 1970s, most speech synthesis was achieved with hardware, but this was costly and it proved impossible to properly simulate natural speech...

Application Of Speech Synthesis

Text-to-speech synthesis has potential applications in any domain in which speech is necessary or enhances Figure 1. A two-step representation of a text-to-speech system tracted researchers to take up the challenge of developing natural sounding and intelligible TTS systems in many languages around the world (Carvalho et al., 1998 M bius, 1999 Mukherjee, Rajput, Subramaniam, & Verma, 2000 Syed, Chakrabartty, & Bignall, 2004).

Learning Styles

Although most educational researchers agree that individual differences in the ways in which students learn play a role in learning, there is little agreement on the nature of the different ways students learn. There is little agreement even on the terminology applied to ways in which students learn. Terms such as learning styles, cognitive styles, learning preference, learning strategies, and learning modalities are used to describe the same basic phenomenon the manner in which students learn....

Mobile Agent Advantages

Using mobile agents is not the unique way to solve some class of problems, alternative solutions exists. However, for some class of problems and applications, we believe that mobile agent technology is more adapted than classical methods. For example, in managing large scale intranet, where we must continuously, install, update, and customize software for different users without bringing the server down. In the following we present three types of application domains where it is better to use...

Gigabit PON

Efforts to standardize PON networks operating at above 1 Gbps were initiated in 2001 as the ITU-T G.984 series of recommendations. GPON is a more generalized version of APON and is not dependent on ATM. GPON realizes greater efficiency over APON by not requiring large IP (Internet protocol) packets to be broken up into 5 3-byte ATM cells. GPON attempts to preserve as many characteristics of the G.983 series of recommendations as possible, however, due to technical issues relating to providing...

Problems of Using Biometric Identification

Different technologies may be appropriate for different applications, depending on perceived user Table 1. Factors that impact any system7 Table 1. Factors that impact any system7 profiles, the need to interface with other systems or databases, environmental conditions and a host of other application-specific parameters. Biometrics has some drawbacks and loopholes. Some of the problems associated with biometrics systems are as follows Most of the technologies work well only for a small target...

Real Options Analysis ROA

The Real Options approach helps managers understand the potential payoff from IT investments in a multi-phase investment scenario (Kohli & Sherer, 2002). Real option theory recognizes that the ability to delay, suspend, or abandon a project is valuable when the merits of the project are uncertain (Tallon et al., 2002). In practice, the application of Real Options has been proven difficult, though not impossible (Tallon et al., 2002). ROA remains a controversial technique because it is based...

Wireless Physical Transport

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has developed a set of wireless standards that are commonly used for local wireless communications for PCs and laptops called 802.11. Currently, 802.11b and 802.11a are two basic standards that are accepted on a wider scale today. These standards are transmitted by using electromagnetic waves. Wireless signals as a whole can either be radio frequency (RF) or infrared frequency (IR), both being part ofthe electromagnetic spectrum...

Design Of Digital Filters

The design of digital filter is the determination of a realizable system function H(z) approximating the given frequency response specification (Mitra, 2001 Smith, 2002 Stearns, 2002 White, 2000). There are two major issues that need to be answered before one can develop H(z). The first issue is the development of a reasonable magnitude specification from the requirements of the filter application. The second issue is the choice on whether an FIR or an IIR digital filter is to be designed...

Index of Key Terms

Acceptable-Use Policy (AUP) 908 access 466, 1000 control 854, 908 network 543 point device 505 rights management 854 accessibility 232, 1012 action research 943 active learning 135, 784 activity logging 908 ad-hoc network 881, 972 ADL SCORM ADLNet (Advanced Distributed Learning Network) 935 admission control 323 adoption 6 advance organizer 709 aesthetic integrity 1012 affective computing 13 affinity communities 1046 AFX 862 agent 614, 916 attributes 614 framework 21 agile development...

Second Generation Networks

The second-generation (2G) cellular systems were the first to apply digital transmission technologies for voice and data communication. The data transfer rate was in the region of 10s of Kbps. Other examples of technologies in 2G systems include frequency-division multiple access (FDMA), time-division multiple access (TDMA), and code-division multiple access. The second-generation networks deliver high-quality and secure mobile voice, and basic data services such as fax and text messaging along...

Info Pyramid

Traditional solutions to multimedia adaptation encode and store multimedia content in a variety of modalities and formats that are expected to fit possible terminals and networks (Li, Mohan, & Smith, 1998). The most adequate version is then selected for delivery according to the network and hardware characteristics of the specific appliance. The advantage of this approach is speed of access because the content is already available and does not need to undergo any transformations. On the...

Cdma Background

Figure Fdma Tdma Cdma

CDMA, in contrast to FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) and TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), poses no restrictions to the time interval and frequency band to be used for the transmission of different users. All users can transmit simultaneously while occupying the whole available bandwidth (Figure 2). They are separated by uniquely (per user) assigned codes with proper low cross-interference properties. Thus, while interuser interference is strictly avoided in TDMA and FDMA systems...

Robust Watermarking Schemes

Watermarks of robust schemes are required to survive manipulations, unless they have rendered the content valueless in some sense. This class of schemes has found its applications in the following areas. (The reader is reminded that the following list is not intended to be exhaustive, but just to identify some possible applications of multimedia security management.) Ownership Proof and Identification A watermark containing the identification information of the content owner can be embedded in...

Proxy Types

In LAN (local-area network) or WAN (wide-area network), machines have different capacities in terms of treatment, storage, and communication. For this reason, we have defined two types of proxies proxy cache and treatment proxy cache. A proxy cache is identified as a machine that has low capacities for running parallel or specialized treatments, and for managing communications between the proxies. Its main task is to store multimedia data and other metadata such as local indexes, neighbor...

Components of the Wireless ATM Network

A wireless ATM-network architecture is based on the registration-area concept. A registration area consists of radio ports, radio-port controllers (medium and small ATM switches), possibly a database, and the physical links that interconnect the parts of the registration area (Figure 2). The wireless ATM network is designed as a microcellular network for the reasons described in Cox (1991), and Wang and Lee (2001). The typical coverage of a radio port in a microcellular network varies between...

Wlan Security Policy Issues

In a wired local-area network (LAN), the network ports and cables are mostly contained inside a building. Therefore, a hacker must defeat physical security measures, such as security personnel, identity cards, and door locks, to be able to physically access the LAN. However, the penetration capability of electromagnetic waves exposes the datatransmission medium of a wireless LAN (WLAN) to potential intruders (Potter & Fleck, 2003). WLAN security thus requires reliable protection of data...

Classification with Technology

The Internet economy can be conceptualized as a collection of IP-based networks, software applications and the human capital that makes the networks and applications work together for online business, and agents (corporations and individuals) who are involved in buying and selling products and services in direct and indirect ways. There is a natural structure or hierarchy to the Internet economy that can be traced to how businesses generate revenue. Based upon this type of structure, Whinston,...

Definition Based On Platform Penetration And Crm Potential

Customer relationship management (CRM) can be described as the process of attracting, retaining, and capitalising on customers. CRM defines the space where the company interacts with the customers. At the heart of CRM lies the objective to deliver a consistently differentiated and personalised customer experience, regardless of the interaction channel (Flynn, 2000). Table 3. Differing consumer expectations for different platforms Table 3. Differing consumer expectations for different platforms...

Learning Object Metadata

The first main standard to be developed upon the concept of LOs was the facility for each LO to have information in particular, semantic information attached to it that describes its contents. This information is called Learning Object Metadata (LOM). The aim of the LOM specification is to enable the reuse, search and retrieval of the LO's content and the integration of LOs with external systems. Figure 2. The semantic web (Berners-Lee, w3.org) A number of different LOM specifications exist....

The Structure Of The Semantic

The structure ofthe Semantic Web presented by W3C is based on a Semantic Web stack, as shown in Figure 1. As we move up in the stack, technologies represent information in a more expressive and meaningful way. Not all technologies ofthis stack are standardized yet, but the prototypes are promising. The stack can be split into three parts Fully Standardized (bottom layers URI Unicode and XML Namespaces) Standardization in Progress (medium layers RDF M& S, RDF Schema and Ontologies) and Still...

Emarketplace Risks

Despite the growth and hype of e-marketplaces, uncertainties, vulnerabilities, and risks existed in e-marketplaces (Choudhury et al., 1998 Sims & Standing, 2002). Exposures to risks increased when disparate services were provided to trading partners. The new services were threatened by internal factors such as lack of standards, lack of regulations, and lack of secure systems. Furthermore, external factors such as the volatile online political sanctions, natural hazards, legal issues,...

Dark Fibre Solutions Challenges And Limitations

Apart from the above traditional fibre-optic networks, there is a recent interest in the deployment of a new category of optical networks. This originates from the fact that for their construction and for their effective deployment and final use, the parties involved generate and promote new business models completely different from all the existing ones. Such models are currently deployed in many areas of North America (Arnaud, 2002). As for the European countries, apart from a successful...

What Is Convergence

Convergence describes a process change in industry structures that combines markets through technological and economic dimensions to meet merging consumer needs. It occurs either through competitive substitution or through the complementary merging of products or services, or both at once (Greenstein & Khanna, 1997). The main issues in the process of convergence have been investigated in the literature (Bradley, Hausman and Nolan, 1993 Collins, Bane and Bradley, 1997 Yoffie, 1997 Valdani,...

Analysis Of The Oobe Life Cycle

The complete OoBE takes place across three phases in the proposed model. The first, selection and acquisition, is crucial because this process establishes user expectations ofthe experience to follow. Note that the IBM Ease-of-Use perspective on the OoBE focuses entirely on initial setup and use, or phase 2 (IBM, 2004). During the third phase, ex panded use, the user's ability can develop sufficiently to move beyond initial (and often trivial) first use applications. Combined, the three...

Theoretical Foundations For The Role Of Multimedia In Educational Contexts

Traditionally, teaching practices have focused on knowledge acquisition, direct instruction, and the recall of facts and procedures. This approach suited the needs of a society needing assembly line workers (Reigeluth, 1999, p. 18). However, in today's knowledge-based society, there is a necessity to emphasize deeper learning that occurs through creative thinking, problem solving, analysis, and evaluation, rather than the simple recall of facts and procedures emphasized in more traditional...

Professional Development Issues

While multimedia is perceived as having the potential to reshape teaching practice, oftentimes the attributes of multimedia technologies are not exploited effectively in order to maximize and create new learning opportunities, resulting in little impact on the learning environment. At the crux ofthis issue is the failure of educators to effectively integrate the multimedia technologies into the learning context. S imply thinking up clever ways to use computers in traditional courses relegates...

Routing Protocols For Manet

Routing issues for ad hoc networks with different devices having variable parameters leads to many interesting problems, as evidenced in the literature (Das & Bharghavan, 1997 Dhar, Rieck, Pai, & Kim, 2004 Illyas, 2003 Iwata, Chiang, Pei, Gerla, & Chen, 1999 Liang & Haas, 2000 Perkins, Royer, & Das, 1999 Ramanathan & Streenstrup, 1998 Rieck, Pai, & Dhar, 2002 Toh, 2002 Wu & Li, 2001). This is also validated by industry as well as government efforts such as DoD-sponsored...

Generating Captions

Since captions are so valuable in indexing and explaining media objects, it is important to obtain good ones. The methods described above for finding caption candidates can be used to collect text for a caption when an explicit one is lacking. Media content analysis also can provide information that can be paraphrased into a caption this is most possible with graphics images. Discourse theory can help to make captions sound natural by providing discourse strategies such as organizing the...

Antivirus Software

Antivirus software was developed to combat the viruses mentioned above and help computer users have a technologically sanitary environment. Antivirus software is not just about preventing destruction and denial of service (DoS) it's also about preventing hacking and data theft (Carden, 1999). The antivirus software market, which totaled 2.2 billion in 2002, will double to 4.4 billion in 2007 (Camp, 2004). The leading brands of antivirus application brands are Symantec's Norton Antivirus,...

Lithuania

The Lithuania Academic and Research Network (LITNET) uses an ATM backbone network to support links to academic libraries and scientific institutions G ANT, the pan European gigabit network and NRENs such as EENET. The Lithuania University of Agriculture and Kaunas Medical University employ ATM and Gigabit Ethernet technologies for e-learning projects. The Kaunas Regional Distance Education Center uses ATM in concert with ISDN and satellite technologies to support access to distance education...

Acknowledgements

Editing this encyclopedia was an experience without precedent, which enriched me a lot both from the human and professional side. I learned a lot from the expertise, enthusiasm, and cooperative spirit of the authors of this publication. Without their commitment to this multidisciplinary exercise, I would not have succeeded. The efforts that we wish to acknowledge took place over the course of the last two years, as first the premises, then the project, then the challenges, and finally the...

ECRM Process Personalized Customer Firm Transaction Figure

To increase the loyalty of the most profitable customers, the company needs to design and implement customized e-marketing strategies Tan, Yen amp Fang, 2002 Wilson et al., 2002 . The customer profile defined in the previous stage will be matched with the most effective customer campaign applications, determining the personalization of company-customer interactions. The completed transaction results in profits for the firm, increased satisfaction for customers, as well as information, which is...

Using Uml To Represent Ecrm Systems

Additional extensions to UML have been proposed to support business modelling Kim, 2004 . The Eriksson-Penker Business Extensions Eriksson amp Penker, 2000 adapt the basic UML activity diagram and introduce a so-called process diagram. Table 1 describes the notation used in this section. An example of an Eriksson-Penker process diagram is shown in Figure 1. The diagram represents a process and the objects involved in that process. The process is triggered by an event and outputs a further...

Usability

The success of any interactive product or system is ultimately dependent on it providing the right facilities for the task at hand in such a way that it can be effectively used, at an a appropriate price Dillon, 1994 . In the past, implementation of business software involved acquiring purchasing a piece of software in order to install and use an interface. The World Wide Web WWW and its associated standardized technologies have changed this and now provide the interface before transactions are...

Contents

Adoption of Communication Products and the Individual Critical Mass Markus Voeth and Marcus Liehr 1 Affective Computing Maja Agent Frameworks Reinier Zwitserloot and Maja 15 Application of Genetic Algorithms for QoS Routing in Broadband Networks Leonard Barolli and Akio Application Service Providers Vincenzo Morabito and Bernardino Assessing Digital Video Data Similarity WaleedE. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Leo Tan Wee Hin andR. ATM Technology and E-Learning Initiatives Marlyn Kemper...

Fllric Cost Methodology

The objective of the FL-LRIC cost model is to estimate the investment cost incurred by a new hypothetical entrant operator under particular conditions. This new operator has to provide the same service briefcase as the established one. Furthermore, the new operator has to define an optimal network configuration using the most suitable technology Hackbarth, 2002 . Using the FL-LRIC methodology, market partners can estimate the pricep A of a corresponding service A. The underlying concepts to...

Relevance Of Communities

Many works in cultural geography, sociology, and anthropology refer to the mediating role oftechnologies in structuring the relationship between individuals and their social environment or community Green, 2002 . Community can be defined as the formation of relatively stable long-term online group associations Barkardjiva amp Feenberg, 2002, p. 183 . Traditionally, the concept of community is associated with many circumstances or factors however, a common physical location was for many years...

Proactive Tracing

Proactive IP-traceback techniques prepare tracking information while packets are in transit, and this is done regardless of the occurrence of an attack. If an attack takes place, the victim can use this captured information to identify the attack source. If no attacks occur, all of the time and effort put into generating the tracing information is wasted. Existing proactive tracing methods essentially follow three strategies packet marking, messaging, and logging. Figure 2 Node appending...

Nontechnical Types Of Information Security Threats

In the past, much information security research and attention focussed largely on technical issues. However, in recent years, it has become widely acknowledged that human factors play a part in many security failures Weirich amp Sasse, 2002 Whitman, 2004 . While technical threats are usually more high pro file and given much media and financial attention, non-technical human and physical threats are sometimes more effective and damaging to information security. Non-technical threats include...

Reactive Tracing

In a reactive approach, tracing is performed after an attack is detected and, hence, no prior processing of tracking information is required. This economizes the traceback mechanism by avoiding all the preparatory processing work undertaken by proactive approaches. The disadvantage of this approach is that if the attack ceases while the reactive tracing is being undertaken, the tracing process may fail to identify the origin of the attack due to a lack of necessary tracking information. This is...

Multimedia Datamining Critical Issues

Multimedia data mining can open new threats to informational privacy and information security if not used properly. These activities can give occasion for new types of privacy invasion that may be achieved through the use of cyberspace technology for such things as dataveillance, that is, surveillance by track- Table 1. A list of multimedia data-mining application domains audio analysis classifying audio track, music mining medical image mining mammography mining, finding associations between...

Agentbased Approach

As more and more computers are connected to the network, the security risks increase accordingly Manikopoulos, 2002 . Although vulnerability assessment tools Martin, 2001 see Table 1 and IDS Denning, 1997 Kemmerer, 2002 are good solutions, they lack several important features Cardoso, 2004 . Network administrators need to be updated permanently and in control of everything that is appended in their networks. However, it is well known that this may not be feasible in real time. An administrator...

Internal Context Proximate Context and Distal Context

Besides the behavioral classification, contextual elements can also be classified based on their physical locus. According to whether the contextual elements are within or outside the body of a consumer, a consumer context can be divided into internal and external contexts. An internal context is comprised of sensible body conditions that may influence a consumer's needs. By definition, internal context is part of need context. An external context, however, can refer to both the supply context...

Some Speech Synthesis Systems

Bell Lab TTS Bell Labs now a part of Lucent Technologies has been active in speech synthesis research for 7 decades and has implemented an interactive and multilingual TTS site on the Web. Bell Labs' systems are concatenative and use diphones as their basic stored speech elements http www.bell-labs.com news 1997 march 5 1.html . DECtalk DECtalk, originally developed for telephony applications by the Digital Equipment Corporation's Assistive Technology Group ATG , uses a digital formant...

Retina and Iris Scanning

Iris Recognition

Considered by many to be the most secure of all biometrics, eye-based biometrics have traditionally been utilized in high-security applications, such as prisons, government agencies, and schools. Eye scanning comes in two forms iris scanning and retina scanning. The first biometric eye-scanning technologies were developed for retina recognition. Retinal scanners examine the patterns of blood vessels at the back of the eye by casting either natural or infrared light onto them. Retina scanning...

Comparison Of Digital Filters

FIR filters are often preferred over IIR filters because they have many very desirable properties Mitra, 2001 Proakis amp Manolakis, 1996 , such as linear phase, stability, absence of limit cycle, and good quantization properties. Arbitrary frequency responses can be designed, and excellent design techniques are available for a wide class of filters. The main disadvantage of FIR filters is that they involve a higher degree of computational complexity compared to IIR filters with equivalent...

The Role of Technology in Mediating Interaction

Technology can provide support for different forms of leadership and styles of working found in group organizations. We consider groups to negotiate their position along several key dimensions Table 1 that characterize the learning environment. Flexibility in the environment to support negotiation is a key factor in the effectiveness of the VLC. The position occupied along each dimension affects the nature of activity in a virtual learning community. For example, if a group member undertakes...

Defining Multimedia

The term multimedia generally refers to the combination of several media of communication, such as text, graphics, video, animation, music and sound effects Gaytan amp Slate, 2002, 2003 . When used in conjunction with computer technology, multimedia has been referred to by some as interactive media Fetterman, 1997 Gaytan amp Slate, 2002, 2003 . Gaytan and Slate cite four components essential to multimedia a a computer to coordinate sound, video and interactivity b hyperlinks that connect the...

Eu Pof

In order to better coordinate European activities in the field of polymer optical fibers, a European information network see http eu-pofnet.org is presently being set up. One of the first steps was the founding of the work group Polymer Optical Fibers within the framework of the FOToN project in Nuremberg on December 6, 2000. Int97 Interbusclub Deutschland e.V. 1997, November . Technische Richtlinie Optische Ubertragungstechnik. Version 1.0, Article no. 9318201. Kaino, T. 1985 . Influence of...

Principles And Guidelines To Support Usability

Dix 1998 , for example, put forward principles to support usability in three categories Learnability, flexibility and robustness. Learnability refers to the ease with which new users can begin effective interaction and then attain a maximal level of performance. Usability principles related to learnability include predictability, synthesizability, familiarity, generalizability and consistency. Flexibility refers to the multiplicity of ways in which the user and the system exchange information....

Exponential Approximation Of MpqoS Vs Bitrate Curves

The experimental MPQoS curves of Figure 2 can be successfully approximated by a group of exponential functions. Consequently, the MPQoS level of an MPEG-4 video clip, encoded at bit rate BR, can be analytically estimated by the following equation MPQoS PQh-PQl 1 e a BR-BRL PQL, a gt 0 and BR gt BRL 4 where the parameter a is the time constant of the exponential function, determines the shape of the curve. Since the maximum deviation error between the experimental and the exponentially...

Issues And Challenges Faced By Virtual Teams

There are some challenges and issues facing the VTs that we need to address. First of all, the emergence of VTs implies the extensive use of electronic forms of communication such as e-mail, videoconferencing, online discussion forums, the Internet, and so forth. The complexity in communicating over time, distance, and space causes the MNCs unique problems that are not easy to solve. Although distance and speed can be considered the most desirable advantages to VTs, there are other essential...

Malware Attack Trends

The IT world is experiencing the transition from an old traditional form of viruses and worms to a new and more complicated one. The trend of virus attacks is that fast worms such as the recent Mydoom as well as new blended attacks that combine worms and viruses are the major infective force in the cyber world and will likely become more frequent in years ahead. In general, such viruses are spreading via updated and increasingly sophisticated methods and are capable of damaging more...

ARGAQ Algorithm

In ARGA and GLBR algorithms, the best route was decided considering only the delay time. The ARGAQ is a unicast source-based routing algorithm and uses for routing two parameters the Delay Time DT and Transmission Success Rate TSR . Let consider a network as shown in Figure 6. The node A is a source node and node B is the destination node. Let node A sends 10 packets to node B. The total TSR value for Figures 6 a and Figure 6 b is calculated by Eq. 1 and Eq. 2 , respectively. 10 x 0.9 x 0.9 x...

Multiple Access Methodology

Data Channelization Code

Multiple access is realized through channelization and scrambling. Channel symbols are spread by the channelization code orthogonal Hadamard codes and then chip-by-chip multiplication with the scrambling code takes place long, partial gold codes of length 38,400 or short S 2 codes of length 256 for future uplink multiuser reception . The chip rate of both channelization and scrambling codes is constant at 3.84 Mchip s. Figure 7. Example of OVSF channelization code-tree usage Figure 7. Example...

List of Contributors

Ahmed, Ansary Open University of Malaysia, Malaysia Ajiferuke, Isola University of Western Ontario, Canada Akhtar, Shakil United Arab Emirates University, UAE Ally, Mohamed Athabasca University, Canada Angehrn, Albert A. Center for Advanced Learning Technologies, INSEAD, France Angelides, Marios C. Brunei University, UK Arbore, Alessandro Bocconi University, Italy Auld, Jonathan M. NovAtel Inc., Canada Baralou, Evangelia University of Sterling, Scotland Barolli, Leonard Fukuoka Institute of...